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Saint Arnaud and Bernard
Convergence or Resilience? A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Welfare Regimes in Advanced Countries
- Growth in advanced societies is tied up to internationalization of economic exchanges
- Globalization has many facets and has influenced structural changes in the economy and
- Governments seeking to justify reducing their social program expenditures
- Cuts mean declines in efficiency of healthcare system
- Concern: declining social capital bc of new economic context
- Depending on ideological orientations, 3 systems of exchange are developed. Esping-Andersen
have confirmed the variety of welfare states and the distinguishing characteristics of them.
Typological Analysis of Welfare Regimes
- Welfare regimes express in their own ways the princniples of basic citizenship (equality, liberty,
- One aspect may dominate over others. For example over emphasis on liberty may mean
economic freedoms are focused upon.
- Overemphasis on equality means communist tendencies
- So need a balance between the 3 to achieve a democratic and dialectic welfare state
- The role of public institutions in mitigating the 3 principles is different in each context.
- 60s and 70s brought about the emergence of welfare states in the context of post war
- 90s brought about a re-evaluation of role of welfare state. Esping Anderson classified states into
3 categories: conservative (Germany, Austria), liberal (US, UK, Canada), and social democratic