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Chapter 6

Health and Aging reading notes chapter 6

Health Studies
Course Code
Anna Walsh

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Health, Illness, and Optimal Aging
Chapter 6
Cardiovascular System
Basic Anatomy and Physiology
-cardiovascular system is the bodys main transportation system
-sends supplies like fluids, nutrients, hormones, oxygen, and antibodies to the tissue in the body
while at the same time removing waste products such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions
-composed of the heart, blood vessels, and blood
-arteries carry blood away from the heart and veins carry blood to it
-blood is a fluid composed of red, and white blood cells,
-heart enclosed by pericardium
-the left side and right side of the heart each 2 upper chambers (atria) which collect blood, and
the 2 lower chambers (ventricles) which pump blood to the lungs and the rest of the body
-oxygen poor blood is collect in the right atrium from the large veins of the body, the superior
and inferior vena cava
-oxygen rich blood is sent via the pulmonary veins to the left atrium from where it flows to the
left ventricle and is pumped out through the aorta
-contraction of the heart called systole and relaxation diastole
-only arteries reflect the heart beat
Age-Related Changes
-enlargement of the heart mass with age due to increase in size of muscle cells
-pacemaker cells decrease to 10% by the age of 75
-capillaries become narrower which impedes blood flow
Disease Related Processes
-systolic hypertension increases throughout life whereas diastolic pressure tends to level off in
later years
Arteriosclerosis and Atherosclerosis
-arteriosclerosis refers to the thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls which leads to
increase in blood pressure which can lead to hypertension
-atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis (the most common form)
-atherosclerosis causes a disruption in blood supple
-risk factors for both are being male, having family history, smoking, diet high in saturated fat,
diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and leading a sedentary life
Peripheral Vascular Disease
-arteries to the legs and feet are partially or completely blocked due to atherosclerosis, resulting
in a decrease in the supply of oxygen and nutrients
Coronary Heart Disease
-leading cause of heart disease in the old
-women less likely to be diagnosed
-risk factors include smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, being overweight, and
having a sedentary life
-can lead to heart attack
Heart Failure
-heartbeat stops
-no longer able to pump blood to meet metabolic needs of the body’s tissues
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Promoting Optimal Aging
-changes in diet
-health education programs
-exercise Respiratory System
-transfer oxygen from the air into the blood stream and to remove carbon dioxide
-tidal volume: when a person is resting quietly the amount of air they need
-vital capacity: amount needed usually
-FVC-Forced Vital Capacity
Age Related Changes
-reduce in cough reflex
-diaphragm becomes weaker
Disease-Related Processes
Lung Cancer
-leading form of cancer
-small cell and non-small cell cancer
-small cell cancer grows rapidly and spread quickly
-non-small cell grows slowly and spreads less quickly; more common in older adults
-under diagnosed
-spreads rapidly
-aspiration pneumonia is common occurrence among the old; caused by the inhalation of
substances such as food, fluids, or medications into the respiratory tract
-treated with antibiotics but recovery is long and debilitating
-often treated at home than at a hospital
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
-general term for several diseases of the respiratory tract
-chronic bronchitis and emphysema
-under diagnosed
-bronchitis the cells of the respiratory tract are inflamed and secrete copious amounts of
thickened mucous, making it difficult to clear
-emphysema is abnormal and permanent deterioration of tissue at the end of the respiratory tract,
in the smallest bronchiole and alveoli
-both create difficulty in exchanging gas in the respiratory tract and a decrease in maximal
expiratory flow
-early diagnosis important
-bacterial infection
-bacteria can remain dormant for years
-hard to diagnosis because symptoms are non specific
-can be treated with 3 medications
Promoting Optimal Aging
-avoid smoking
-good health habits Gastrointestinal System
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