Health and Aging reading notes chapter 6

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31 Oct 2010
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Health, Illness, and Optimal Aging
Chapter 6
Cardiovascular System
Basic Anatomy and Physiology
-cardiovascular system is the bodys main transportation system
-sends supplies like fluids, nutrients, hormones, oxygen, and antibodies to the tissue in the body
while at the same time removing waste products such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions
-composed of the heart, blood vessels, and blood
-arteries carry blood away from the heart and veins carry blood to it
-blood is a fluid composed of red, and white blood cells,
-heart enclosed by pericardium
-the left side and right side of the heart each 2 upper chambers (atria) which collect blood, and
the 2 lower chambers (ventricles) which pump blood to the lungs and the rest of the body
-oxygen poor blood is collect in the right atrium from the large veins of the body, the superior
and inferior vena cava
-oxygen rich blood is sent via the pulmonary veins to the left atrium from where it flows to the
left ventricle and is pumped out through the aorta
-contraction of the heart called systole and relaxation diastole
-only arteries reflect the heart beat
Age-Related Changes
-enlargement of the heart mass with age due to increase in size of muscle cells
-pacemaker cells decrease to 10% by the age of 75
-capillaries become narrower which impedes blood flow
Disease Related Processes
Hypertension
-systolic hypertension increases throughout life whereas diastolic pressure tends to level off in
later years
Arteriosclerosis and Atherosclerosis
-arteriosclerosis refers to the thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls which leads to
increase in blood pressure which can lead to hypertension
-atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis (the most common form)
-atherosclerosis causes a disruption in blood supple
-risk factors for both are being male, having family history, smoking, diet high in saturated fat,
diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and leading a sedentary life
Peripheral Vascular Disease
-arteries to the legs and feet are partially or completely blocked due to atherosclerosis, resulting
in a decrease in the supply of oxygen and nutrients
Coronary Heart Disease
-leading cause of heart disease in the old
-women less likely to be diagnosed
-risk factors include smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, being overweight, and
having a sedentary life
-can lead to heart attack
Heart Failure
-heartbeat stops
-no longer able to pump blood to meet metabolic needs of the body’s tissues
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Promoting Optimal Aging
-changes in diet
-health education programs
-exercise Respiratory System
-transfer oxygen from the air into the blood stream and to remove carbon dioxide
-tidal volume: when a person is resting quietly the amount of air they need
-vital capacity: amount needed usually
-FVC-Forced Vital Capacity
Age Related Changes
-reduce in cough reflex
-diaphragm becomes weaker
Disease-Related Processes
Lung Cancer
-leading form of cancer
-small cell and non-small cell cancer
-small cell cancer grows rapidly and spread quickly
-non-small cell grows slowly and spreads less quickly; more common in older adults
-under diagnosed
Pneumonia
-spreads rapidly
-aspiration pneumonia is common occurrence among the old; caused by the inhalation of
substances such as food, fluids, or medications into the respiratory tract
-treated with antibiotics but recovery is long and debilitating
-often treated at home than at a hospital
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
-general term for several diseases of the respiratory tract
-chronic bronchitis and emphysema
-under diagnosed
-bronchitis the cells of the respiratory tract are inflamed and secrete copious amounts of
thickened mucous, making it difficult to clear
-emphysema is abnormal and permanent deterioration of tissue at the end of the respiratory tract,
in the smallest bronchiole and alveoli
-both create difficulty in exchanging gas in the respiratory tract and a decrease in maximal
expiratory flow
-early diagnosis important
Tuberculosis
-bacterial infection
-bacteria can remain dormant for years
-hard to diagnosis because symptoms are non specific
-can be treated with 3 medications
Promoting Optimal Aging
-avoid smoking
-exercise
-good health habits Gastrointestinal System
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Document Summary

Cardiovascular system is the body"s main transportation system. Sends supplies like fluids, nutrients, hormones, oxygen, and antibodies to the tissue in the body while at the same time removing waste products such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions. Composed of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. Arteries carry blood away from the heart and veins carry blood to it. Blood is a fluid composed of red, and white blood cells, The left side and right side of the heart each 2 upper chambers (atria) which collect blood, and the 2 lower chambers (ventricles) which pump blood to the lungs and the rest of the body. Oxygen poor blood is collect in the right atrium from the large veins of the body, the superior and inferior vena cava. Oxygen rich blood is sent via the pulmonary veins to the left atrium from where it flows to the left ventricle and is pumped out through the aorta.

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