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Chapter 8

Health and Aging reading notes chapter 8

Health Studies
Course Code
Anna Walsh

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Health, Illness, and Optimal Aging
Chapter 8
-functional health refers to the ability to take care of personal needs
-health promotion programs optimize health and health behaviours and intervene in illness
-quality of life is an overarching construct that includes optimal health and maintenance of independence
Functional Health
Assessing Functional Health
Activities of Daily Living (ADLS)
-Katz, Ford, Moskowitz, Jackson, and Jaffe developed the first ADL scale to measure a persons ability to complete
6 basic functions
1. Bathing
2. Dressing
3. Toileting
4. Transferring from bed to a chair
5. Continence
6. Eating
-measure by asking either the person or the caregiver whether a task can be completed
-answers rated into 3 levels
1. Ability to perform the task independently
2. Ability to perform the task with some assistance
3. Inability to complete the task even with assistance
-another way to assess is to watch the patient
-inability to perform ADL increases with age especially for women
Instrumental Activities of Daily Living
-Lawton and Brody made this scale
-to complete IADLS a person has to have the physical and mental abilities to perform a task as well motivation
-the first IADLS scale had
1. Using the telephone
2. Shopping
3. Food preparation
4. Housekeeping
5. Laundry
6. Independent travel
7. Taking scheduled medications
8. Being able to handle finances
-questions are addressed to the person not the caregiver
-responses rated as
1. Without help
2. With some help
3. Unable
-older people are more likely to have limitations in IADLS than ADLS because they are more complex and
demanding on the body
Balance and Gait
-scales are frequently used by clinicians to evaluate an older persons risk of falling
-scale developed by Tinetti in 1986 includes observing a person rising from a chair to a standing position, walking
and turning, and standing and leaning forward or backward
-evaluate memory, functional limitations, judgement, and social appropriateness of those with cognitive losses
-Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire
-Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS); directly observe a persons ability to complete a function
Functional Losses, and Morbidity, and Mortality
-relationship between poor ADL scores and need for help from family, friends, and neighbours
-receiving help with at least one ADL was predictive of needing even more help
-poor health and difficulty with ADL were associated with lower feelings of well being
Promoting Optimal Functional Health
-self rated health is a major predictor of health status as well as mortality
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