Textbook Notes (378,720)
CA (167,253)
UTSC (19,212)
HLTC22H3 (102)
Chapter 1

PSYC12 – Chapter 1 notes.docx

4 Pages

Health Studies
Course Code
Michelle Silver

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 4 pages of the document.
PSYC12 – Chapter 1 notes
By forming groups – daily lives can be easier etc. through division of labour
Groups are not unique to humans – it is a basic part of the nature of animals
oDisadvantages such as mate retention and competition
Group members tend to favour their own groups (ingroups) over ones that they do not
belong to (outgroups)
A minimal group is one that is based on very arbitrary criteria (i.e. random assignment)
people still prefer their group
Groups form the basis for prejudice and stereotypes
The study of prejudice and stereotyping is important because such negative attitudes form
the basis for subsequent negative intergroup behaviour
Overt expressions of racial prejudice and intergroup hatred have declined, but they have
not disappeared especially inwardly
Defining stereotyping
oLippmanns stereotype
Stereotype originally comes from a term to describe a printing process in
which fixed casts of material are reproduced
The term was adopted by social scientists when Lippmann used it to
describe the tendency of people to think of someone or something in
familiar terms based on a common feature shared by each
We all have ‘pictures in our heads of the outside world and these
representations are more like templates to simply our confusing world
Stereotypes are largely determined by the culture in which we live
He was correct in 2 ways
1. The origin of stereotyping – they tell us what social info is
important to perceive and to disregard in our environment
2. This process tends to confirm preexisting stereotypes by paying
attention to stereotype consistent info and disregarding anything
that is inconsistent with our beliefs
oFrom bad to neutral
Researchers started regarding stereotypes as a very lazy, negative way of
perceiving social groups
It was seen as an outward indicator of irrational, nonanalytic
cognition i.e. rigid thinking and moral defectiveness
Allport defined stereotypes as an exaggerated belief associated with a
oSocial-cognitive definition
Researchers came to regard stereotypes as an automatic process of
categorization that is inherent in human nature
Bringham – stereotyping is a generalization made about a group
concerning a trait attribution which is considered to be unjustified by an
Problem with the last part

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
PSYC12 – Chapter 1 notes • By forming groups – daily lives can be easier etc. through division of labour • Groups are not unique to humans – it is a basic part of the nature of animals o Disadvantages such as mate retention and competition  • Group members tend to favour their own groups (ingroups) over ones that they do not  belong to (outgroups)  • A minimal group is one that is based on very arbitrary criteria (i.e. random assignment)  people still prefer their group • Groups form the basis for prejudice and stereotypes • The study of prejudice and stereotyping is important because such negative attitudes form  the basis for subsequent negative intergroup behaviour  • Overt expressions of racial prejudice and intergroup hatred have declined, but they have  not disappeared especially inwardly  • Defining stereotyping  o Lippmann’s stereotype  Stereotype originally comes from a term to describe a printing process in  which fixed casts of material are reproduced   The term was adopted by social scientists when Lippmann used it to  describe the tendency of people to think of someone or something in  familiar terms based on a common feature shared by each   We all have ‘pictures in our heads’ of the outside world and these  representations are more like templates to simply our confusing world   Stereotypes are largely determined by the culture in which we live  He was correct in 2 ways • 1. The origin of stereotyping – they tell us what social info is  important to perceive and to disregard in our environment • 2. This process tends to confirm preexisting stereotypes by paying  attention to stereotype consistent info and disregarding anything  that is inconsistent with our beliefs  o From bad to neutral   Researchers started regarding stereotypes as a very lazy, negative way of  perceiving social groups  • It was seen as an outward indicator of irrational, nonanalytic  cognition i.e. rigid thinking and moral defectiveness   Allport defined stereotypes as an exaggerated belief associated with a  category  o Social­cognitive definition   Researchers came to regard stereotypes as an automatic process of  categorization that is inherent in human nature  Bringham – stereotyping is a generalization made about a group  concerning a trait attribution which is considered to be unjustified by an  observer • Problem with the last part   Schemas are broader cognitive structures that contain our knowledge of a  stimulus • Stereotypes are much more specific and are subsumed within a  schema  o Cultural and Individual Stereotypes   Cultural stereotype – shared or community­wide patterns of beliefs   Individual stereotype – beliefs held by an individual about the  characteristics about a group   One’s cultural stereotype about a group may not be the same as one’s  individual stereotype about the group  • They may not believe the stereotype held by their group or may  have another one that is not shared by the group   Individual stereotypes are of more attention to research because they are  the most directly related to that person’s specific thoughts, feelings and  behaviour toward the group  o Is stereotype an attitude?  Attitude – a general evaluation of some object  • Good­bad / favourable­unfavourable • Has 3 components:   o Behavioural, affective and cognitive  • Thus, sometimes stereotypes are defined as intergroup attitudes,  related to these components  • Majority of researchers agree that stereotypes represent only the  cognitive part of any intergro
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.