Total dependency ratio (TDR) – (a+c)/b
The leading cause of death used to be infectious disease but has changed dramatically.
Compression of morbidity – people would remain healthy longer, until a few months before their
maximum life span and would then die after a relatively short period of disability. Others have
said that extension of morbidity – people living longer with disabilities.
Whether there is a maximum life span in humans has not been resolved
Half the world’s population of older adults live in developed countries and the other half in
developing countries but this will change where by 2030, more than twice as many older people
will be in developing countries.
Demographic transition is used to describe the process by which a society or nation moves from
one of high birthrate and high mortality to one of low birthrate and low mortality.
Demographic Factors and Rate Of Aging
Gender – men and women used to have similar life expectancies largely due to infectious disease.
Now, women live longer than me – expectancy increased for both genders but more for women.
Reasons – reduced pregnancy and childbirth mortality rates that started in the late 1800s and
early 1900s. More males are conceived and born than females, but male death rates exceed female
death rates at every age of life. Males are more likely to have prenatal and neonatal problems and
are more susceptible. In adulthood, men develop heart disease earlier than women, typically
beginning in midlife. Despite the longeiveity, women typically report poorer health than men.
They also have higher rates of disability. Why are men likely to die more than women if they are
sicker? Because women often report more illnesses that are nonfatal while men suffer more fatal
ones. In very late life, there are indeed ‘two girls for every boy’.
Marital Status – marriage appears to provide the greatest health benefits, divorce the most
difficult problems, and widowhood mixed results. Men are much more likely to be married than
women. Married people often have better health behaviour habits, more likely to have better diets
and exercise regularly, have higher incomes and thus higher socioeconomic status, also the social
integration that accompanies marriage is important for health. Both men and women appear to
suffer from mental health problems after being widowed, although it may be more prominent
among men than women.
Ethnicity – asian and pacific islanders had the greatest life expectancy at birth, followed by
European Americans, American Indians, and African Americans. Immigrants tend to be healthier.
There seems to be a crossover of age age-specific life expectancy in later life.
Socioeconomic Status (SES) – tweeners – they make too much money to receive most federal and
state services such as Medicaid or SSI, but too little to have financial security. They myth persists
that older people need less money, and poverty levels are set accordingly. Therefore, a younger
person making a certain amount of money would be considered living in poverty while a older
person would not. Older women are among the poorest people in the country, especially if they