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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Book Notes


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTC22H3
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic
Chapter
5

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Health, Illness, and Optimal Aging- Biological and Psychological Perspectives
Chapter 5: Aging of the Skin and Musculoskeletal System
-Skin provides the covering for the body and is the first line of defense against bacteria,
viruses and other types of environmental damage
-Bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles
oMake up the musculoskeletal system provides shape and support for the body,
make movement and adjustments in positions possible and protect the internal
vital organs from external trauma
-Overview
oPresent normal age changes
oDescribe disease processes
oRisk factors
oFactors that promote optimal aging
Skin
Basic Anatomy and Physiology
-Function
oFront line of defense against harmful environmental influences
oCritical in temperature maintenance
oAids in homeostasis
-Basic Anatomy
oLargest and most visible organ
oOutermost layer of skin is called the epidermis
oSecond layer is the dermis
oLast layer of subcutaneous fat
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Health, Illness, and Optimal Aging- Biological and Psychological Perspectives
oHair follicles, nail beds and nails, and sweat and sebaceous glands are embedded
in the various layers
-Epidermis consists most of
okeratinocytes (90%)
Cells that protect the skin from outside harm and help it heal if it is injured
Keratinocytes are found deep in the epidermis
Also necessary for the synthesis of vitamin D (used in the absorption of
calcium)
oMelanocytes
2%
Produce melanin for keratinocytes and give colour to the skin
Exposure to the sun increase in melanin which can protect the skin
from damage
oLangerhans cells
1%
Important for immune system
Along with the mast cells found in the dermal layer, they respond to toxic
allergic stimuli
-Dermis
oConsists largely of collagen and elastin tissue
oProvides strength and elasticity to the skin
oBlood vessels, lymphatic tissue, and nerves are imbedded as are the sweat glands
and hair follicles
oMast cells
Responsible for the skins ability to respond to allergens
-Subcutaneous fat
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Health, Illness, and Optimal Aging- Biological and Psychological Perspectives
oGives shape and form to the body and provides protection and insulation
Why does our skin wrinkle?
1. Outer layer of skin becomes thinner thru cell loss
2. Collagen fibers lose flexibility
3. Elastin fibers in the middle layer lose their ability to keep the skin taut
4. The underlying layer of fat diminishes
-Combination of changing in structure of skin in the connective tissue n supportive tissue
Age Related Changes
-Changes in the hair follicles
oResult in the greying and loss of hair
-Wrinkles
oDue to decrease in subcutaneous fat layer and in the collagen and elastin found in
the dermal layer
-Decreased protection from sun (predisposition to hyperthermia)
-Decreased ability to respond to allergic stimuli
-More likely to bruise and tear
-Decrease in blood vessel availability
oPredisposes the older person to both hypothermia and hyperthermia
-Decreased sensitivity to touch injury and to heat and cold
-Lower antigen sensitivity
-More vulnerable to high temperatures (cuz a loss or decreased in sweat layouts )
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