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Chapter 6

HLTC22H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Angina Pectoris, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Health Studies
Course Code
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

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Health, Illness, and Optimal Aging- Biological and Psychological Perspectives
Chapter 6: Aging of the Internal Organ Systems
Basic Anatomy and Physiology
-The cardiovascular system is the bodys main transportation system.
-It sends supplies such as fluids, nutrients, hormones, oxygen, and antibodies to tissues
in the body while at the same time removing waste products such as carbon dioxide
and hydrogen ions.
-The system is composed of the heart, blood vessels (arteries, arterioles, capillaries,
veins and venules), and blood. In general, arteries carry blood away from the heart, and
veins carry blood to the heart.
-Blood is a highly complex fluid composed of water, red and while blood cells, and
platelets, as well as nutrients such as fat globules, carbohydrates, and proteins.
-It is perfused by gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen.
-Blood also carries electrolytes, to help maintain the acid/base balance, and a host of other
chemicals, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and various other peptides necessary
to regulate homeostasis, cognition, movement, and every other function of the body.
-The heart is the centre of the circulatory system.
-It is located behind the chest wall, in a slightly canted position, with the midsection
somewhat to the left of the sternum, or breastbone.
-It is enclosed in a fibrous sac called the pericardium.
-The left and right sides of the heart each have two upper chambers (atria), which collect
the blood, and two lower chambers (ventricles), which pump the blood to the lungs and
the rest of the body. Anatomically, the atria are thin-walled; the walls of the ventricles
are thicker and more muscular, as they do the long-distance pumping.
-The right and left sides of the heart each serve as a pump.
Blood Pathway
-Oxygen-poor blood is collected in the right atrium from the large veins of the body,
the superior and inferior vena cava.
- From there it flows to the right ventricle and is pumped via the pulmonary arteries
into the capillary system of the lungs for carbon dioxide and oxygen exchange.
-Oxygen-rich blood is sent via the pulmonary veins to the left atrium, from there it
flows to the left ventricle and is pumped out through the aorta.
-The blood from the aorta flows into the large arteries and then to the smaller arteries,
arterioles, and the capillaries.

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Health, Illness, and Optimal Aging- Biological and Psychological Perspectives
-The rate of blood flow is largely determined by physical demands on the body.
-Capillaries are very small- one cell wide- fluid, nutrients, electrolytes, hormones, and
other substances are exchanged
-Collects blood from capillaries and move it into larger and larger veins (reaching
superior/inferior vena cava)
-64% blood volume is found in veins
-Walls of veins and arteries: flexible smooth muscle, elastic fibers, and collagen
Sinoatrial node (pacemaker) upper part of right atrium
Spreads down the heart through atrial myocardium to reach atrioventricular node
conducted to atrioventricular bundle & purkinje fibers
Sent to both ventricles
Single moves down and contraction of cardiac/heart muscle begins
Systole- contraction of heart
Diastole – relaxation of the heart
Asystole- no heartbeat

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Health, Illness, and Optimal Aging- Biological and Psychological Perspectives
Lub – first/loudest sound of a heartbeat (valves b/w atria & ventricles close and ventricles
Dub- second/softer (closure of the valves b/w ventricles & large arteries (pulmonary & aorta)
Carotid artery- neck
Radia artery- outer edge of wrist
Pedal pulse- top of foot
Popliteal pulse- back of the knee
Age-Related Changes
-Enlargement of the heart with age- due to increase size in muscle cells & myocites
-By age 75, 10% of pacemaker cells remain
-Slowing of electric activity
-Slowed pulse
-Increased blood pressure
-Decreases ability to cool down or heat up
-Smaller arteries are harder for dilating and constricting
-Changes in the collagen in the middle layer of the large arteries of the body cause them to
thicken and become stiff
-Fat tissue surrounds the sinoatrial node, leads to abnormally slow pulse - bradycardia
-Overall, heart function is less efficient with age
-Most of the normal aging changes have little impact on the everyday functioning of an
older person
Hypertension= high blood pressure (140/90)
-Optimal blood pressure for adults over the age of 18 is 120/80 or lower. (The first number
refers to the systolic and the second to the diastolic pressure.)
-Blood pressure is still considered normal at a reading of 130/85, but at 140/90 or greater,
it is classified as hypertension (although some have argued that 160/90 is normal for older
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