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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Textbook notes

Health Studies
Course Code
Anna Walsh

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HLTB01 Chapter 9 The interface between physical and mental health
Personality Processes and Disease
-Hippocrates developed a system of medicine based on the belief that substances called
humors influenced both personality and health
-this was extended by Galen, the four humors were: blood, melancholy (black bile), choler
(yellow bile), and phlegm
-having a serious chronic illness can lead to depression and frustration
-health psychology and behavioural medicine are founded on the notion that the mind and
body are intimately connected in a bidirectional or transactional manner
-health psychology tends to be oriented toward basic research, whereas behavioural
medicine focuses more on clinical application
-bidirectional refers to a reciprocal relationship between physical and psychological health
-transactional refers to a continuous process of change among multiple variables
-personality processes: the psychological factors associates with health and aging include
traits, affective states, psychological symptoms, and beliefs and attitudes
-in the past 3 decades, a strong relationship has emerged between personality processes and
diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD) and overall mortality
-3 primary negative emotions that have been linked to the development of disease and its
progression are: hostility, depression and anxiety.
-control, self-efficacy, optimism, and emotional stability may have protective effects
Psychological Risk Factors and Health
-hostility is a risk factor for CHD, high cholesterol, high BP, and cigarette smoking
-people should be less hostile in their everyday lives
-Type A Behaviour Pattern (TABP) extreme easily aroused hostility, achievement
motivation, time urgency, and explosive speech patterns
-assess TABP in 2 ways: (1) Structured Interview (SI) Type A people are annoyed by
people who are slow and tend to interrupt and finish sentences. They get angry and hostile
when they challenged. The interviewer asks the questions slowly and challenging their
responses. On the basis of their response, they are categorized as either Type A or Type B.
(2) self-report questionnaires (e.g. Jenkins Activity Survey JAS).
-in the Normative Aging Study, men who were high in anger and hostility were 2.5 x more
likely to develop CHD than those who had low scores on those emotions
-the SI provided stronger and more consistent results than self-report measures
-the relationship between hostility and CHD is stronger for men than for women and may
be stronger for younger than for older people, although the results are inconsistent
-the relationship between Type A and coronary artery disease (CAD) was strongest for
those in their 30s and early 40s, Type Bs after age 56 had a higher chance for CAD
(survivor effects)
-people high in hostility tend to have poorer health behaviour habits more likely to smoke,
drink, weigh more, and be less active
-people high in hostility exhibit greater cardiovascular reactivity to stress when subjected
to stressors, they respond with larger increases in BP and more elevated heart rates
-tend to be low in social support
-hostility is age dependent highest in adolescence
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