Textbook Notes (378,602)
CA (167,192)
UTSC (19,212)
HLTC22H3 (102)
Anna Walsh (49)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 notes

9 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTC22H3
Professor
Anna Walsh

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Chapter 2: Demography of Aging
There has been a change in the population demographics of the world starting from
the 20th century
oThe number of old ppl are increasing
oCould be problematic b/c some countries (developing) dont have the resources
for a large old population
Aging in the World
1905 majority of population in US = children and young people, pyramid-shaped
profile
1975 largest cohort = baby boomers
oMore ppl in 70s and 80s & 90s
2010 estimates: more children, middle aged
oLess ppl who are >85
2030: babyboomers = grandparents
oMore than 70 mill ppl will be >65
Atchely: says that countries that have a rectangular pyramid = more prosperous &
politically stable than classic pyramid
# of old ppl (>85) increased by 38% since the 1990s
1980 - ~14000 centenarians lived in US more than tripled until now
Age dependencey ratios: more younger & middle-aged than older ppl
oWorking units of pop. Will outnumber those who are dependent on them
Total dependency ratio (TDR): compares # of economically non-productive
citizens (below 18 and over 65) with teh number of working-aged adults
oEstimate of number of ppl who need to be supported by workers
oTDR = (a+c)/b
oA= children <18... b= adults aged 18-65,... c= adults >65
www.notesolution.com
Problem with TDR:
oInc. Number of old adults will create burden on working adults
oCompetition for services between old and young
Life Expectancy: expected # of years a person in a particular cohort can live
oDrastic change in life expectancy today than b4..
oNow children expected to live about 30 years longer than children in the
1900s.
oIn 1900s many infectious diseases being spread: influence, tuberculosis,
pneumonia... rare diseases = cancer, heart disease
oPpl of all ages died due to lack in proper health care, vaccinations, etc
oBut since 1930s... shift towards chronic diseases
oBy late part of 20th C. five leading causes of death among >65 were heart
disease, cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia &
influence
Change in age-specific life expectancy as well due to better nutrition, health care,
sanitation practices
Jeanne Calment possibly longest lived women in world (122 yrs)
Medvedev observed the old in USSR and found that a lot of them werent as old as
they claimed: they may have taken on wrong birth dates, increased year,
Now chronic diseases are part of aging.. they are not curable, require management of
illness to decrease rate of progression
oArthiritis, hypertension, multiple neurological disorder
Fries and Crapo compression of morbidity
oSaid that ppl would remain helahty until a few years b4 their lifespan, and
then would develop illness & gradually die
oLarger # of ppl surviving until late life
2nd Controversy = humans and maximum lifespan?
www.notesolution.com
Vaupel + collegues argue that max life span reflects statistical forces rather than
genetic
Controversy = important, b/c of public issues such as retirement... shouldnt be at 60
if ppl are expected to live another 60 years.
Geographic location and residence:
oCalifornia = highest # of old adults
oRetirees may move to better climate, or where cost of living = lower
oSome old = snowbirds have dual residences, leaving cold north adn
escaping hot south during summer
oIf death of spouse, or someone close, they may go back to place where they
spent most of their time in search of familiar environment
oMore than 80% live independently in homes
oSmall proportion in nursing homes around 4-5%
oAssisted-living communities = <3% of adults
Type of care emerged in the past 20 years
Not extensive care
Graying of rural America:
o23% of >65 elders live in nonmetropolitan areas
oLarger portion of rural communities = older ppl
oDue to out-migration of younger ppl and in-migration of older ppl, and aging
in place
oOlder ppl in rural areas choose to do so: could be due to dissimilarity in
resources, health, and family relationships
oDiff groups of old ppl
1.Life long farmers: they have close social support and contacts
2.Old ppl who retire to rural areas from urban: financially secure, well
educated, good health
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 2: Demography of Aging There has been a change in the population demographics of the world starting from th the 20 century o The number of old ppl are increasing o Could be problematic bc some countries (developing) dont have the resources for a large old population Aging in the World 1905 majority of population in US = children and young people, pyramid-shaped profile 1975 largest cohort = baby boomers o More ppl in 70s and 80s & 90s 2010 estimates: more children, middle aged o Less ppl who are >85 2030: babyboomers = grandparents o More than 70 mill ppl will be >65 Atchely: says that countries that have a rectangular pyramid = more prosperous & politically stable than classic pyramid # of old ppl (>85) increased by 38% since the 1990s 1980 - ~14000 centenarians lived in US more than tripled until now Age dependencey ratios: more younger & middle-aged than older ppl o Working units of pop. Will outnumber those who are dependent on them Total dependency ratio (TDR): compares # of economically non-productive citizens (below 18 and over 65) with teh number of working-aged adults o Estimate of number of ppl who need to be supported by workers o TDR = (a+c)b o A= children <18... b= adults aged 18-65,... c= adults >65 www.notesolution.com
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