Textbook Notes (378,200)
CA (167,103)
UTSC (19,205)
HLTC22H3 (102)
Anna Walsh (49)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7 notes

7 Pages
103 Views

Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTC22H3
Professor
Anna Walsh

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AGING AND THE REGULATORY SYSTEMS
Sensory system.
-Composed of five senses: touch, smell, taste, hearing, vision
-Allow the nervous system to gain info. About the external environment
Age and disease related changes
-Touch
oSkin is sense organ for touch
oMeissner’s corpuscles and pacinian corpuscles
oWith age, these receptors decrease both in number and in sensitivity
oDiabetic neuropathy
-Smell
o10% decline in sense of smell with age
oSensory neurons decrease in the nasal lining and olfactory pathways
oSmoking degrades sensory neurons more
oFirst indicator of Alzheimer’s disease is decrease in sense of smell
oDegradations in smell may impair appetite
oRisk of food-borne illnesses
oDecrease in ability to smell leaking gas... this is dangerous
-Taste
oTaste buds can sense salt, sweet, sour, bitter, fat, umami
oUmami is composed of glutamate monosodium glutamate (MSG)
oGradual losses in taste may be due to smoking, periodontal disease, illness,
medications
oLoss of taste can lead to anorexia
-Hearing
oMiddle ear contains three ossicles that pass vibrations to the oval window
oCells in the ear canal generate earwax
oThe organ of Corti may be affected by atherosclerotic changes in the capillaries
that provide nutrients to it
oOtotoxic medications
oStructures of inner ear that sense gravity and head position can degrade over time
oPresbycusis – hearing loss with age
oThe shorter hair cells at the beginning of the cochlea respond to the highest
frequencies and suffer the greatest wear and tear
oStudy showed that prevalence of hearing impairment nearly doubled between 1965
and 1994, especially for men
oRisk factors include loud noise, ototoxic drug use
oLeads to decreased willingness to communicate with others
www.notesolution.com
oThere is a dose response curve between hearing impairment and problems in other
domains
oTinnitus is a ringing in the ears
-Vision
oLight passes thru the cornea
oMuscles in the iris regulate the amount of light that enters the eye
oRetina contains photoreceptors – rods and cones
oLens focuses image
oCones responsible for color vision
oRods transmit info. Black and white BUT more sensitive to light
oWhole structure supported by gel-like substances called humors
oThe cornea, lens, and vitreous humor all diminish in transparency
oYellowing of the lens
oLens loses elasticity
Called presbyopia
oMuscles in iris decrease in number and strength
oCollagen stiffens – reduces ability of pupil to enlarge
Starts at age 20
oProductive fluids produced less
o4 most common diseases are cataracts, macular degeneration, glaucoma, diabetic
retinopathy
oCataracts is caused by exposure to UV-B light, pollutants, steroids etc..
Easily treatable with surgery
Leading cause of blindness among elders in developing countries
oIn USA glaucoma is leading cause of blindness
Increasing build-up of aqueous humor in the eye
Most at risk are African-Americans or ppl w/ family history of glaucoma
Treatment is laser therapy, prevention, medications
oTwo types of macular degeneration – wet/exudative and dry/atrophic
Dry form is most common type
Wet form is responsible for most cases in which there is severe vision loss
Free radicals damage the supple of nutrients to the retina and the macula
of eye degenerates destroys central vision
No good treatment for dry AMD
Evidence that ingestion of vegetable fats, smoking, UV rays increase risk
of AMD
Nervous system.
Basic anatomy and physiology
-Nervous system is primary regulator of body
-Central nervous system consists of brain and spinal cord
-Peripheral nervous system consists of sensory and motor neurons
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Description
AGING AND THE REGULATORY SYSTEMS Sensory system. - Composed of five senses: touch, smell, taste, hearing, vision - Allow the nervous system to gain info. About the external environment Age and disease related changes - Touch o Skin is sense organ for touch o Meissners corpuscles and pacinian corpuscles o With age, these receptors decrease both in number and in sensitivity o Diabetic neuropathy - Smell o 10% decline in sense of smell with age o Sensory neurons decrease in the nasal lining and olfactory pathways o Smoking degrades sensory neurons more o First indicator of Alzheimers disease is decrease in sense of smell o Degradations in smell may impair appetite o Risk of food-borne illnesses o Decrease in ability to smell leaking gas... this is dangerous - Taste o Taste buds can sense salt, sweet, sour, bitter, fat, umami o Umami is composed of glutamate monosodium glutamate (MSG) o Gradual losses in taste may be due to smoking, periodontal disease, illness, medications o Loss of taste can lead to anorexia - Hearing o Middle ear contains three ossicles that pass vibrations to the oval window o Cells in the ear canal generate earwax o The organ of Corti may be affected by atherosclerotic changes in the capillaries that provide nutrients to it o Ototoxic medications o Structures of inner ear that sense gravity and head position can degrade over time o Presbycusis hearing loss with age o The shorter hair cells at the beginning of the cochlea respond to the highest frequencies and suffer the greatest wear and tear o Study showed that prevalence of hearing impairment nearly doubled between 1965 and 1994, especially for men o Risk factors include loud noise, ototoxic drug use o Leads to decreased willingness to communicate with others www.notesolution.com
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