other summaries.doc

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8 Apr 2012
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IDSB04- week 1 notes
Ch.1 - Introduction
WHOs def’n of health: health is a state of social, mental and physical well-being not just the absence of
diseases
Public health- preventing disease by community efforts through education, nurses for services,
treatment before disease and development of social machinery for individuals in the community
to maintain health
Social medicine- political actions integrated with health efforts
Population health- individual determinants of health do not act in isolation but rather in a
complex fashion (unemployment =isolation, poverty, homelessness)
Collective health- 1970s, role of ordinary people and social movements shaping health
outcomes
International Health (World Health)
Governments in the early 20th century tried to improve health around the borders by working
together with more sanitation and quarantine and safer measure at work to increase
productivity
WHO was created after WW2
Global Health
Recognizing health issues around the world regardless of borders of a country, helping across
the world
recognizes issues in rich and poor countries, looking at social, economic, political etc…factors
migration, immigration, lack of border control lead to a threat of spreading diseases
What then is International Health?
Health-related agreements between countries
Activists and agencies that carry out health efforts and believe it’s good for people receiving it
Looks at spread of diseases worldwide (causes and consequences)
Deals with humanitarian response to disasters and emergencies ex. (political, ecological threats)
Lack of resources, knowledge and tools leads to health issues; agencies decide which to provide
and how
Ongoing Challenges and Dilemmas in International Health
Who protects health within countries?
Who sets policies?
What role should international entities play in shaping domestic and local health policies?
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Ch.2 - The Historical Origins of Modern International Health
Antecedents of Modern International Health: Black Death, Colonial Conquest, and the Atlantic Slave
Trade
Chinese, Persian, Egyptians, Hindus etc… in their civilization came up with instruments to
prevent disease (garbage disposal, drainage and systems of water supply)
Plague and the Beginnings of Health Regulation
Medicinal herbs found in Europe and the Islamic World, however sanitation was ruined by
migration and lack of water supply
Plague of Justinian struck in 542 ce through Asia and Ireland and the great black death of the
14th century killed many more people (most destructive ever)
no causes were discovered for the plagues but vessels seemed to be a factor of the spread
quarantine stations such as lazaretto and cordon sanitaire were set up in Venice and Italy,
disinfecting people and cargo
people believed it was gods way of getting back at sinners, some thought it was bad air and
others thought it was just passed on
rich people usually left towns and escaped from plague while others were not so lucky
18th century countries took sanitation more seriously introducing, improved ventilation,
drainage of water, street cleaning, cleaner wells, burial of garbage etc
These measure led to international health measure and institutions
The rise of European Imperialism
-
Muslims started moving out of their countries opening more way for the Europeans to enter,
Europeans were looking for resources and riches by travelling the seas
Many people died because of forced labour by the Europeans and small pox is believed to be
from infested blankets from the Spanish
Military conquest put a rise to the spread of disease and famine, therefore medical practitioners
joined these colonial ventures setting up better health care practices
Codex Badianus (1552) was a collection of herbs (really important) Spaniards wanted to learn
about it
Spanish and Portuguese set up medical faculties in colonial cities such as Peru and Brazil to help
urban elites, charity care through healers and midwives
There was then greater emphasis on technology with new developments in astronomy, physics
and medicine
Cure for small pox was found in Spain and arrived in Puerto Rico in 1804 and delivered to people
by foot
Diseases that Europeans were exposed to include smallpox, yellow fever, some malaria (came
from African ships)
The Slave Trade
chose Africans to be slaves because of dark complexion, physical attributes (adaptable to
tropical climates since most work was needed on farms growing different crops), no strong
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military and therefore easy capture
sent to the Caribbean, brazil, U.S. and South America (many died on the ship ride there) 16th
century
slavery took place for 3 centuries, many died because of hard labour, inadequate housing,
emotional/physical punishment and poor nutrition (avg. life span 21 years old)
Health, The Tropics, and the Imperial System
as long as profit was made, authorities disregarded health concerns of slaves but this changed in
the 1800s
tropics were hot and wet in the middle of nowhere and prone to diseases, therefore white men
and women avoided
better housing, nutrition and sanitation helped some diseases disappear (medicine found in
tropical forests)
foods came from across the world from each and every country improving nutrition in the New
World
1850’s rubber became a growing industry, people from India came to work in Britain and
brought diseases with them such as malaria and hookworm
Malaria’s cure was found in Peru from the bark of the cinchona officinalis by Jesuits (1600s)
Trees disappeared from Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador and a monopoly was created for the Dutch
Tropical Medicine
British Physician Patrick Manson worked to keep people healthy in China and established the
field of tropical medical research (diseases like malaria came from tropics/mosquitoes)
Vaccine and cures were created yet many deaths were happening in sub-Saharan
Africa(political economic exploitation)
Natives and slaves were most affected by the outbreak of diseases
Industrialization and the emergence of modern public health
Between 1750 -1900 the world population doubled, because of a shift from feudalism to
capitalism which included bourgeoisie and proletariats (more political freedom)
more advances in technology lead to work being less difficult and trade protection remained
Industrial Revolution in England
1750 – 1850 =industrial revolution, where factories and big machines used in production of
goods
Wages made people more free and therefore less impoverished, more welfare of workers
Higher powers took most of the profits and gave workers the lowest wages they could get away
with
Shift from country to towns increased populations, more houses were being built and sold
cheap around factories, industrialized areas causing numerous lung issues with other health
concerns
Edwin Chadwick and Friedrich Engels
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