Evolving understandings of violence
Violence against women became significant in the 60-70’s
50% of women over 18 have faced at least on incidence of sexual or physical assault
29% of women in a marriage have reported at least one physical or sexual assault
Women have more sexual assault, but same physical assault at workplace
77% of nurses reported at least one incidence of assault, 50% was at risk for a physical assault
Three reasons for violence: interpersonal, family, and gender politics. Interpersonal focus on
the individual and intrapersonal. Refers to the psychological understand and interpretation of
the violence. Family model deals with family and couples. Violence can arise due to power or
gender inequalities. The last model of gender politics deals with the social context. Feminist
approach only takes one view, instead of both the male and women perceptive. Also there many
other factors like race and status that can have more effects.
Violence and Women’s Health at Intersections
Intersectionality observes how different forms of oppression deal with one another
Inequalities compound the impact of violence
Inequalities cause barriers for obtaining support for violence
Inequalities sustain notions of superiority and distance various people
Violence affects Women’s Health
Causes physical, emotional, and mental abuse
Health effects are also seen in higher costs for the health care and social services systems
Inequalities Compound the Impact of Violence
Less privileged women are exposed to more violence. They are more vulnerable. 22.6 women
are disabled, and those with disabilities are 1.5-2 times more likely to be abused. Poverty also
increases chances for violence
Less privileged women the more likely to disclosure (not tell anyone) of intimate partner
violence (IPV). This is done to preserve culture, honour, and personal, social, economic costs.
Studies showed that incomes of the women declined greatly after leaving an abusive partner.
Also the loss of direct and indirect care occur for leaving.
The more forms the oppression a women faces, the more constrained are her “choice.”
Financial and psychological independence are the key factors that deter women from either
entering or staying in abusive relationships. Wife abuse occurred most in relationship witht he
greatest sexual economic inequality. IPV does not prevent working, but prevent long stable jobs.
Abuse interferes with the job performance by work disruption and work stalking
Barriers of Support Inequalities limit access to support