Textbook Notes (363,237)
Canada (158,278)
HLTA02H3 (135)
Chapter 23

HLTB03 - Chapter 23.doc

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Michelle Silver

CHAPTER 23 Ethics in Health Care in Canada • Health and social policy will be considered at three levels of analysis: o Macro level: level of societal responsibilities for the health of the total population o Meso level: level of institutional responsibilities for programs of care o Micro level: level of individual professional responsibilities for patients and families receiving health care Ethics and Human Reproduction—should we create life? Societal Issues: • Ethical issues in human reproduction include: contraception, sterilization and abortion; care in childbirth; “test tube” babies • Abortion was considered a violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms because it violated a woman’s human right to life and personal security. Thus, abortion became legalized in Canada. • Protection of the fetus?  birth is viewed as the necessary condition for personhood and until birth the pregnant woman and her unborn child are legally one • Ethical concerns in the use of new reproductive technologies (ovulation enhancement, sex selection, surrogacy etc) continue to be shaped by language of rights Policy Reponses: • Federal Minister of Health declared “voluntary moratorium” on applying reproductive technology procedures regarding threat to human dignity and treating women as commodities • March 2004 an act respecting assisted human reproduction becoming law in Canada. This law was designed to: o Prohibit unacceptable practices such as human cloning o Protect Canadian families using assisted human reproduction (AHR) to help build their families in health and safety o Ensure that research related to AHR which may facilitate the treatment of infertility and other disorders takes place in a regulated environment • This act prohibits a number of unacceptable activities in Canada: o Human cloning, germ-line alterations, payment of surrogates, payment of donors of egg, sperm or in vitro embryos, creating chimeras and using someone’s reproductive material without their consent Genetics and Genetic Testing—should we alter our genes? Societal Issues: • New genetic knowledge (large part by Human genome project) and techniques are changing ways people think about health and illness, personal risk, and family responsibility • As a result of this project, large number of genes have been identified and new commercial tests becoming available for genetic screening purposes raises ethical questions for health research, health care delivery and society Policy Questions: • Should researchers be setting boundaries in search for new genetic knowledge? Who should oversee applications of this knowledge? How much funding should be devoted to advancement of genetic science relative to other matters requiring research? Organ Transplantation and Organ Donation: should we replace parts? Societal Issues: th • Organ transplantation has been declared one of the greatest achievements of the 20 century, offering people with end-stage organ failure “a gift of life”. • Successful transplant offers some people virtually complete physical rehabilitation and improvement in overall quality of life. However, others not so fortunate. • Concern: transplantation consumes a large proportion of health care resources and benefits only a few Policy Issues: • Fundamental questions at the macro or societal level about level of resources to be allocated to life-saving technology o Macro level: worldwide shortage of donor organs (strategies offering financial incentives, buying and selling organs, using anencephalic infant donors, use of xenografts (transplanting from one species to another), or cloning to solve problem of shortage o Meso/institutional level of health care system: type of patient who should be recipients of organ transplantation?, and how selection criteria should be developed?, proportion of institutional budget devoted to transplantation compared with other programs o Micro level: how health care providers decide whether or not a transplant is in given patient’s best interest (related/unrelated donors) End of Life Issues—should we interfere with “nature” at the end of life? Societal Issues: • Issue about quality of life while dying: o Euthanasia: deliberate, rapid, and painless termination of a life of a person afflicted with incurable and progressive disease o Withholding and withdrawing treatment o Concept of futility o Attempts to provide meaningful end of life care Assisted euthanasia: refers to advancing one’s own death by requesting help from others either to provide lethal dosages of drugs with instructions about how to use them effectively, or requesting others to administer drugs or other mechanisms to bring about one’s death • Euthanasia and assisted suicide have been “officially tolerated and widely practiced” in the Netherlands for almost two decades • In 1994 Oregon became the first state to pass a law allowing assisted suicide Canadian Policy Responses: • 1983, Law Reform Commission of Canada recommended against decriminalizing euthanasia in any form • Special Senate Committee on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide recommended that programs of palliative care be made available so all patients and families could be support
More Less

Related notes for HLTA02H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.