Textbook Notes (363,312)
Canada (158,329)
HLTA02H3 (135)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8 The social construction of scientific and medical knowledge and practice.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Dan Silver

Chapter 8 The social construction of scientific and medical knowledge and practice Introduction: the sociology of Medical knowledge  Is scientific knowledge universally true?  Medical knowledge is based on science but also influenced by human, cultural and social factors o Making the selection of possible diagnoses and treatments difficult for both patients and practitioners  Do allopathic doctors have better theory and does the introduction of new technology occur as the final stage for rational decision-making  This approach is also consistent with another substantive field within sociology; the socio of knowledge referring to objective knowledge such that of science and medicine  Science isn’t objective and universally true, it is humanly produced  Resulted in an institution that has become embedded in wider social structures and maintained through processes of negotiation by some actors and associated disciplinary bodies of knowledge and practices  Medical practice practiced based on this socially constructed science and is also influenced Medical and scientific knowledge: historical and cross-cultural context  Positivism; model of science upon which medicine is based and described by such as objectivity, precision, certainty, generalizability, causality and more  Search for ultimately for a series of law-like propositions that are designed to explain the operation of medicine  Science should follow the same course to be true everywhere and every time in history  A number of theorists have demonstrated that beliefs regarding scientific objectivity are problematic  Kuhn; historical development of science and how methods are infused w/ cultural categories  Mind-body dualism, physical reductionism specific etiology, machine metaphor and regimen and control  Mind-body dualism: begun with Descartes; separation of mind and body, clinical gaze and stethoscope o Inventions entrenched the distinction b/w the soul/mind and body as they made the body a precisely describable/observable empirical entity  Physical reductionism: emphasizes the physically observable at the expense of other aspects of individual such as individual experienced mental, sensual and emotional o Leads to disregard of political and economic causes of ill health o Cat scans and mris and x-rays illustrates this reductionism  Doctrine of specific etiology: Rene Dubos first to write this was another characteristic of modern medical science o Primary assumption of this view is that each disease is thought to be the result of a particular pathogen or malfunction o Developed from discoveries by Koch and Pasteur o Led to exaggerated emphasis on the discovery of a magic bullet to cure specific disease o Can be associated w/ ignoring subjectively described symptoms and overly restrictive b/c it ignores the fact that the very same micro-organisms may assault any number of people o Lack objective medical measurement by available tools designed to see organ pathologies  Machine metaphor: body emphasizes discrete parts, such as individuals organs and interrelationships with other discrete parts o Led to medical specialization and to interventions such as the removal and replacement of parts of the body  Regimen and control: an outgrowth of the machine metaphor o Involve the underlying assumption that the body is to be dealt with, fixed and continually improved o Imply that body is perfectible and under control of the individual though exercise and diet; emphasis on control such as number of spacing of checkups and early detection technologies reinforces that o Also cosmetic fixes are one outcome of this  Manning and fabrega; elements of what was called “BIOLOGISTIC VIEW of body” o First organs ad systems then specific functions’ identifiable and observable as discrete entities o Normal functioning body same for everyone o 3 people sensory experience is universal o disease and experience of it doesn’t vary from culture to culture o boundaries b/w self and body and b/w self and others are obvious o death is body’s ceasing to function o bodies should be seen objectively Medical Science and Medical Practice: A gap in values  significant gap in b/w published biomedical research and the actual practice of medicine  to minimize distance b/w researcher and practitioner  the Canadian gov’t and medical associations have process for developing agreement b/w science and practice called “evidence based medicine or EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE” o goal to bring together practitioners and researchers, inform of latest scientific findings, scientists of practical issues facing practitioners, to work towards the development of timely, national standards of practice  montini and slobin show various differences in work cultures of clinicians and researchers may play a role in limiting their amalgamation  limitations relate distinct values including: o certainty versus uncertainty o evolutionary time versus clinical timeliness o aggregate measures versus individual prescriptions o scientific objectivity versus clinical experience o constant change versus standards of treatment  these in more detail: o doctors: work with patients who want/need immediate and certain responses, while scientific doesn’t rely on or expect certainty rather probability is the focus of lab o science doesn’t progress by proof so much as failing to disprove, scientific truth develops in in
More Less

Related notes for HLTA02H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.