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Week 10 readings

7 Pages

Health Studies
Course Code
Toba Bryant

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WEEK 10 Chapter 9: Cracks in the Foundation- Georgina Feldberg & Robert Vipond The Demographic and Social Origins of North American health and health care (1700-1900) History of health care in North America begins with informal healing traditions emerged in pre- th colonial and colonial periods and predominated until late 19 century Prior to 20 century, few Canadians visited doctors or hospitals- were for the destitute and dying Lack of formal regulation allowed for diverse and widespread participation in healing practices that were often informal or rooted in domestic economy o Home births assisted by family and neighbours o Mothers taught daughters how to grow and brew common and essential remedies o British North America (BNA) Act (1867) shaped constitutional framework of Canadian federation Reflected contemporary experiences with disease and unimportance of scientific medicine Throughout 19 century, diseases such as TB, cholera, typhoid, smallpox associated with filth and decay instead of germs Structures of Canadian govt and BNA Act reflected immediacy of health hazards pose by infections and state of health knowledge o Recognized economic significance of infections and implications for trade and military therefore federal govt responsible for quarantines and marine hospitals o Provinces and cities responsible for interventions against infection (ie. Sanitation) o Act created relationship between control of infections, public health and state but ignored curative medicine th Later 19 century- modern or allopathic biomedicine o Kocks postulates (bacterium caused TB, not being filthy) allow focus on microbes that caused diseases rather than social and physical conditions o Male and class dominance emerged in medical practice o Hospitals became centres of care Early decades of 20 century, North Americans recognized need to reshape and regulate medical practice o Medical schools sought affiliation with universities o Women, who played big role in informal caregiving excluded from education and practice, many went to U.S. to study medicine (ie. Emily Stowe, Canadas first woman doctor) Insuring health (1900-1980) End of WWI, most European nations and England recognized public need for access to hospitals and medical care established some form of govt-administered health insurance. Canada and U.S. did not Entry in Canadian Medical Association (CMA) Journal warned that govt insurance plans would undermine spirit of charity in medicine, turn physicians to civil servants and create private practice After the Depression, medical practices declined in 1930s. In 1934, CMA accused provincial and municipal govt of failing to provide necessary medical care for indigent and unemployed After WWII, plans for national health insurance emerged o 1945, PM King and President Truman introduced national health insurance plans that failed 1957, Canada implemented Hospital and Diagnostic Services Act in response to growth of hospitals, treatment centres and hospital care costs. Only 60% of services were covered (both in Canada and U.S.) www.notesolution.com
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