HLTA10 Pgs 26-46

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

2646There is a large variation in health status according to socioeconomic factors gender culture ethnic status and age Investigators have mainly focused on the health effects of social stratification The socioeconomic classification National Statistics Socioeconomic Classification NSSEC has been reported to be sensitive to differences in health status Occupational classifications have been successfully employed in Britain to analyse inequalities in health status btw the higher and lower classes Investigators of social variations subscribe to positivist theories of society which emphasize the way in which society enables and constrains us eg the distribution of power and resources in society affects employment and income opportunities which in turn affect health The 2 main explanations which attempt to report for social variations in health and mortality in dvlpd nations area The Social Causation hypothesis factors associated w socioeconomic status influence healthb The Selection hypothesis takes a life course perspective that argues for eg poor health in childhood and adolescence leads to lower socioeconomic positionsIndirect selection could also be the cause where individual characteristics lead to better socioeconomic position and better health longerterm unemployment has led to adverse health effects Psychosocial stress a heightened mindbody reaction to fear or anxietyarousing stimuli illnessStress is the product of the persons capacity for selfcontrol and include theories of selfefficacy feeling of confidence in ability to undertake the bhvr hardiness personal feelings of control and mastery control over the response to stressStress in relation to the biological response of the person to the social envt acting upon them Psychological approaches to the measurement of stress are mostly quantitative Coping the cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage the internal and external demands of the stressful event Coping style is one hypothesised mediating factor in the link btw stress and illness and can be a moderating variable in relation to patients health outcomes after treatment Mediating factor relevant to coping include personality dispositional optimism material resources and social support Stress recent is based on the model of cognitive appraisal which consists of primary appraisal assessment of situation as irrelevant stressful or positive secondary appraisal evaluation of coping options and resources and reappraisal represents fluid state of appraisal processesThe Crisis theory related to the impact of disruption on the person and has been applied to coping abilities the ppl strive towards equilibrium in their adjustment so their crises are selflimiting3 types of coping skills are appraisalfocused coping problemfocused coping and emotionfocused copingThe Theory of Planned Behaviour demo how social structures and individual attitudes can influence bhvr its not the disability that predicts what one can do but ones attitudes towards itEg Lowefficacy over a situationdepression anxiety helplessness Models of coping based on the Model of selection optimisation and compensation SOC emphasises the success of coping by personal growth and positive outcomes by the substitution of activities in the face of lossesdifferent stages in the life trajectory If a person is unable to do certain things then they compensate by selecting things that they can do thus optimising their social situation
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