HLTA10 Pgs 72-95

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

HLTA10 7295Epidemiology the distribution of specific causes aetiology of and risk factors for diseases in popn The study of distribution determinants and frequency of disease in human popnMainstream epidemiology examines data on levels of disease and risk factors for disease while taking environmental factors into accountMaterialist epidemiology is concerned w the role of underlying societal and structural factors Descriptive studies are concerned w describing the general distribution of diseases in space and time case series students crosssectional surveysAnalytic studies are concerned w the cause and prevention of disease and are based on comparisons of popn groups in relation to their disease status or exposure to disease case control cohort studiesIndirect causation an intervening variable thats an intermediate step in the causal pathway btwn the independent and dependent variables fatty food narrowed arteries coronary 3 diseaseConfounding variable an extraneous factor factor other than the variables under study not controlled for which distorts the results an extraneous factor only confounds when its associated w the dependent variable causing variation on it and w the independent variable under investigation The confounding and independent variables interact together to affect the outcome and their contributions cannot be disentangled Makes the dependent and independent variables appear connected when their association may be spurious false associationsCase series study a number series of cases w the condition of interest is observed often using triangulated methods questionnaires observations in order to determine whether they share any common featuresA economical in terms of time and resources useful for generating hypotheses developing a body of language about a situation and paving the way for future intervention trialsD lack of comparisonCross sectional survey surveys based on a representative sample or subsample of a popn of interest who are questioned at one point in timeTo assess the prevalence of diseases associated factors and associations w service useScreening surveys formed the basis for case finding particularly in surveys of disability and psychiatric problems Bc of the high cost and time consumption of popn screens case finding is now more commonly carried out in opportunistic screening exercises detection of cases by questionnaires or record research among ppl attending a docs surgery for any condt Ecological study aim to assess exposure eg risk and disease or mortalityThe unit of study is a group of ppl rather than the person ppl in classrooms hospitals in relation to the phenomenon of interest the unit of analysis is a geographical area the groups of interest are surveyed longitudinally Case control study a descriptive research method which involves comparing the characteristics of the group of interest such as a group w a specific disease heart
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