HLTA10 Pgs 214-223

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

HLTA10 214223 Quantitative research deals w quantities and relations btwn attributes involves the collection and analysis of structured data in the positivist traditionappropriate for situations where theres preexisting knowledge which will permit standardized data collection methods survey questionnaire Sociological observational research are appropriate where phenomenon of interest can be observed directly Social surveys aim to measure attitudes knowledge and bhvr and to collect info as accurately as possible Descriptive surveys carried out in order to describe popn to study associations btwn variables and to establish trends measures certain phenomena events bhvr attitudesPhenomena are observeddescribed rather than tested One type is crosssectional surveys Longitudinal survey conductedmore than one point in time and aim to analyze cause and effect relsh Survey a method of collecting info f a sample of the popn of interest w person interviews postal or self completed questionnaire Census a complete enumeration and gathering of info as distinct f partial enumeration associated w a sample Analytic survey longitudinal carried out at more than one point in time aims to investigate and analyze causal associations btwn variablesObjectives of surveys 1 To estimate certain popn parameters levels of health status 2 To test a statistical hypothesis about a popn Retrospective crosssectional surveys these are descriptive studies surveys of a defined random crosssection of the popnone particular point in time Questioning respondents about past as well as current bhvr attitudes and events A cheap in timeresources large numbers of ppl can be surveyed quickly standardized data are easily codedD recall bias hard to establish the direction of an association cause and effect Popular in social sciences to investigate social phenomena and in epidemiology to investigate the prevalence not incidence of disease Prospective longitudinal survey an analytical survey that takes place over the forward passage of time prospective w more than one period of data collection longitudinal Either panel followup of the same popn or trend diff sample at each data collection Requires careful definitions of groups for study careful selection of variable for measurement data have to be collected at frequent time interval response rates must be highResults can be biased if theres a high sample attrition through natural loss geo mobility or refusals over timeGood for studying the effects of new interventions or trends in bhvr or attitudes Secondary data analyses refers to existing sources of data that can be used for research purposes
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