HLTA10 Pgs 144-181

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Ch 6 144181A well structured research protocol is a prerequisite of any investigationOne of the first stages of research design is to describe the aims objectives and hypotheses of the study Nonsignificant research findings are rarely accepted for publication resulting in publication bias which is bordering on scientific misconduct Metaanalyses pooling and analyzing statistically the results f several different studies to increase statistical power and detect small but clinically important treatment harms and effects analyzing the data in order to reach a single observation for the aggregated data To obtain the best overall estimate of the effect of the treatment interventionIntl interest in conducting rigorous systematic reviews led to the dvlpt of the Cochrane Collaboration which is an intl group of subject and methodological specialists who identify and synthesize the results of controlled trials and maintain their reviews to prevent the least amount of bias possible Sensitivity analyses explores the ways main findings alter by varying methods of aggregation needed to assess to the strength of the combined estimationsSystematic review aims to be systematic in the identification and evaluation of included literature objective in their interpretation of this and have reproducible conclusions They are prepared w a systematic approach to minimizing biases and random errorsThe research question must be clearly defined and only studies addressing it can be included all the relevant issues need to be included A checklist for assessing the quality of systematic reviews and critical appraisals data extraction proforma for empirical research reviews should includeminClear statement of aims study design observational research quality criteria appropriateness of methods and statistics country and date of study site of study sample size response rates theoretical framework predictors and outcomes assessed measurement tools w evidence of reliability and validity outcomesresults and generalisability The application of methods to systematic reviewing to qualitative research is more challenging Types of Qualitative Synthesis includeNumeric synthesis converting qualitative data into quantitative formatsNarrative synthesis aggregation of findings for comparison based on narratives rather than numerical methodsMethods to dvlp an inductive and interpretive knowledge synthesis which aims to go beyond individual studies and contribute to conceptual and theoretical dvlpt Objectives are at the level of operational tasks that has to be accomplished in order to meet the aims of the first stage of research design Substantive Hypothesis an assumption which is the expression of a tentative solution to a research question phrased in the form of a conceptual relsh btw the dependent and independent variables Its tentative bc its to be tested empirically by the research and cannot be verified until thenA causal hypothesis is a prediction that one phenomenon to be observed will be the result of one or more other phenomena that precede it in time The concepts within the hypotheses need to be defined and operationalised so that they can be measured Concepts abstract ideasTheories tentative explanations of relsh derived f interrelated conceptsOperationalisationthe dvlpt of proxy measures which enable a phenomenon to be measured In order to test a hypothesis empirically all the concepts in the hypothesis need to be defined and an explanation needs to be given about what can be used t measure operationalise themVariable an indicator resulting f the operationalisation of a concept and which is believed to
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