chapter 7 notes for HLTA10

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Health Studies Section 3; Chapter 7.1 Calculation of Sample Size, Statistical Significance and Sampling The Sampling Unit Member of the sample population Investigator must calculate how many clinics, doctors, and patients are needed in the sample Hierarchical statistical techniques (multilevel models) have been developed for the analysis of multilevel studies The different levels of data are referred to as nested Ecological fallacy inferences about groups are drawn from individuals Calculation of Sample Size and Statistical Power Size of the sample aimed for should be calculated at the design stage Power calculation statistical approach to determining sample size in evaluation studies o Measure of how likely the study is to produce a statistically significant result for a difference between groups of a different magnitude o Probability = power Considerations in Determination of Sample Size Must consider need for sub-group analysis, issue of item and total non-response and sample attrition in the case of longitudinal designs Testing Hypothesis, Statistical Significance, the Null Hypothesis Hypotheses are in the form of either a substantive hypothesis (represents a predicted association between variables, or a null hypothesis (statistical artifice and always predicts the absence of a relationship between the variables Hypothesis testing is based on the logic that the substantive hypothesis is tested by assuming that the null hypothesis is true
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