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HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter 1

Plagues Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Chapter One: The Nature of Plagues - Peter Turner World War II veteran o Attended the American Legion convention in Philadelphia o Two days after the convention he fell ill with high fever, chills, headache, muscle aches and pains. o He had dry coughs, chest pains, lungs filled with fluid, experienced confusion, disorientation, hallucinations and loss of memory - Out of 221 legionnaires who became ill – 34 died from pneumonia - Called Legionnaires disease – quickly gained public attention and widespread fear - No person-to-person spread could be documented - All who became ill had spent longer periods of time in the lobby of the Hotel - Air was the pathway of the spread of the disease - Most popular theory infection resulted from aspiration of bacteria called Legionella in aerosolized water from cooling towards and evaporative condensers - Aspiration is produced by choking o Secretions in the mouth go into the lungs instead of stomach mistakenly - 11, 000 documented cases annually in the US with fertility rate of 15% - Outbreaks traced to water heaters, baths, therapy equipment etc - Mary Benton UCLA TA o Died of multi-organ failure – low blood pressure, hepatitis, renal insufficiently and internal blood clots o Toxic Shock Syndrome – TSS o Each case began with vomiting and high fever followed by fainting, muscle aching o Gender specific disease – not an STD o Linked to the use of certain types of tampons - Tampons created a favorable environment for the toxin-producing S.aureus www.notesolution.com o Obstruct the flow of menstrual blood and may cause bacteria into the vagina - 2003 SARS outbreak had all the scary elements of a plague panic, curtailed travel and commerce and economic collapse - Little notice has been taken of the ways that disease can shape history - Influence of disease on history has often been neglected because there appeared to be few hard and fast lessons learned - No apparent impact except for catastrophic epidemics - We live in an age where diseases appear to have minimal effects - We are immunized as children, treat illness with drugs, well nourished - HOWEVER – world is much more vulnerable o Diseases can erupt and spread throughout world more quickly o Increased and rapid movements of people and goods o Efficiencies in transportation o Few habitats are truly isolated or untouched by humans - New diseases may be related to new technology – ex: TSS + Tampons Living off Others - Parasites – life dependent entities (from latin word ‘food’) - Simply a means to an end: obtaining resources needed for their growth and reproduction - Parasitism intimate association of two different kinds of organisms o Wherein one benefits (parasite) at the expense of the other (host) - Parasite often harm their hosts - The harm afflicted is called a “disease” (means ‘without comfort) - Parasites come in many different guises: www.notesolution.com o Fragment of genetic material wrapped in protein virus o Some are made up of cells roundworms, flies, ticks etc - Some parasites live inside the body (HIV) other live on the surface - Parasites are smaller in mass than their host - Ex: Malaria Parasite lives within red blood cell that is 1/5, 000 inch in diameter - Some parasites have complex life cycles and may have several hosts o Malaria – hosts are mosquitoes and humans o Blood fluke disease – hosts are humans and snails o Sleeping sickness – hosts are flies, game animals and humans - All parasites cause harm though not all kill their host outright - Resistance may develop in any population and some individuals may be immune or not susceptible because of genetic abnormality - Parasites need to disperse their offspring or infected stages to reach new hosts o They produce lots of offspring, thereby increasing odds that some will reach new hosts o Ex: Malaria infected mosquito – injects dozens of thousands of parasites - Hookworms can live within the intestine for more than 10 years producing each day more than 10, 000 eggs - HIV – a million viruses will be reproduced in a few short days after it invades - Transmission – movement of a parasite from host to host whether by direct or indirect means - Vectors when transmission of parasites involves living organisms o Transmission by vector may be mechanical (bite) or development - Transmission may occur through eating utensils, drinking cups, food, needles etc. - Parasites come in variety of sizes and shapes and kinds - Bacteria are PROKARYOTES www.notesolution.com o Free living or parasitic o May assume several body forms – rods, spheres or spiral - Protozoa are one celled EUKARYOTES o Lead an independent existence or be parasitic - Bacteria and protozoa too small to be seen by the naked eye o They are called micro-parasites - Ultimate micro-parasite VIRUS o Smaller than ba
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