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HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter 3

Plagues Chapter 3

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Chapter 3: Six Plagues of Antiquity - After human populations was settled down and adopted agricultural life – conditions favoured the emergence of diseases - Agricultural revolution was the driving force behind the growth of cities (urbanization) - Urban life enhanced the transmission of certain disease through the air and water - Diseases of antiquity characterized by parasites with long-lived transmission stages o Eggs o Involving person-to-person contact - Most diseases established when small number of infectious individuals could be maintained The Pharaohs’ Plague – A look back - A disease that cause blood to appear in the urine (hematuria) - Hematuria was described by the father of Arabian medicine – Avicenna - The Condition called AAA was recognized much earlier o Mentioned in the papyrus dated 1500 BC o Remedies are also mentioned o In the tombs, there are figures of people with enlarged abdomens representing chronic snail fever or blood fluke disease Search for the destroyer - Blood fluke disease – known as snail fever or endemic hematuria o Involves feces or urine, water, snails and a flatworm - First Europeans to experience – soldiers of Napoleon’s army during invasion of Egypt www.notesolution.com - Symptom of the disease – bloody urine - Route of infection – seems like only bathing in infested water, not ingestion - Life cycle of snail fever: o They reach fresh water, discharged eggs release a swimming larva (the miracidium) o Miracidia are short lived – but if they encounter a suitable snail they penetrate the soft tissues, migrate to the liver and change in form for 6-7 weeks by asexual reproduction o Numbers of parasites increase o During this time – snail sheds thousands and can develop into adult worms Snail Fever, the disease - Adult worms at 10 mm in length - Sexes are separate – males have groove running lengthwise - Both males/females have two suckers at the head and end of the worm - Live in blood vessels (veins) close to the bladder and small intestine - Mating occurs in the gynecophoric canal – females deposit fertilized eggs in smaller veins upstream - Each day, hundreds of embryo-contained eggs move towards the bladder or intestine - Eggs become enclosed in a small tumor called granuloma - More then 2/3rds of eggs fail to work their way out of body and washed back in veins - The other freed and eliminated with urine or feces - Eggs pile up, block normal flow and leads to tissue death - Earliest signs of infection occur within 1-2 months o Fever, chills, sweating, headache and cough - 6 months- a year later the accumulation of eggs produces organ enlargement www.notesolution.com o Especially to liver and spleen Abdomen to become bloated, appetite diminishes, blood loss leads to anemia - Severity of its symptoms and damage is directly related to how many worms are present - Heavy cases: there may be hundreds of worms and adults live 20-30 years Where snail fever is found - Wars and human migration carried the blood flukes along trade routes of the world - Introduced from Africa by West African slaves - At present, there is as estimated 200 million people infected with schistosomes - More than a million deaths annually - 50 million cases in Africa – highest incidents occur in children - A general disease associated with agriculture a
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