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HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter 1

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Health Studies
Rhan- Ju Song

September, 13 , 2012 Chapter 1: Nature of Plagues  Infection resulted from aspiration of bacteria ( called Legionella)  (TSS) Toxic shock syndrome: is a gender specific disease  The influence of disease on history has often been neglected because they appeared to be few hard and fast lessons to be learned from a reading of the past  We live in a day and age where disease appear to have minimal effects o Children are immunized, effective drugs Living off Others  Parasites come from the Latin word “parasitus” meaning food  Germs that caused the disease are called parasites  Parasitism is he intimate association of two different kinds of organisms (species) where one benefits (the parasite) at the expense of the other (host)- parasite harm their host  Virus: They are composed of a fragment of genetic material wrapped in protein o for it to reproduce, it must enter a living cell and use the cellular machinery to replicate itself  1 cell- bacteria, fungi, protozoa; multi cell- roundworms, flies, ticks  Some parasite live inside the body (tapeworms) and some live outside (ticks)  Resistance may develop in a population of hosts, so they all won’t be infected  Parasites need to disperse their offspring to reach new hosts  Hookworms live attached to the lining of the small intestine  Transmission: movement of a parasite from host to host, whether direct or indirect  Vectors: transmission of parasites involving living organisms  The ultimate micro parasite is a virus, they are smaller than bacteria and cannot be seen with the light microscope, only electron microscope  Micro parasites reproduce within their hosts, and are sometimes referred to as infectious microbes or germs  Macro parasites can be seen without a microscope o Macro parasites do not multiply within an infected individual, instead they produce infected stages that usually pass out of the body of one host before transmission to another Plagues and Parasites  Plagues: are disease outbreaks  Individuals are infected and can spread the disease to others are said to be contagious  Carriers: infectious but asymptomatic (showing no signs of disease) individuals  Typhoid Mary spread the disease around from her cooking Forecasting Storms, Predicting Plagues  Three factors are required for a parasite to spread from host to host o There must be infectious individuals o There must be vulnerable individuals o There must be means of transmission between the two  A disease outbreak is now called an epidemic September, 1
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