Textbook Notes (362,991)
Canada (158,132)
HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter 16&17

Chapter 16 & 17.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Rhan- Ju Song

Chapter 16: Plagues without Germs The Red Plague  The red plague, pellagra, is a disease almost unheard of today, but in its time was a killer  It was first described in Spain, in 1735 as Mal de la Rosa, “the red disease”, because it appeared first as a skin rash that covered the hands and feet and sketched an ugly butterfly pattern across the neck  In early stages, the reddening of the skin might resemble a sunburn, or it may be confused with inflammation due to poison oak, but when the skin starts to get crusted and peel away, showing the smooth and shiny skin below, then a diagnosis of pellagra was certain  Symptoms: flaming of skin, loss of balance, staggering gait, senseless muttering, tongue became reddened, burning sensation in the mouth, diarrhea, some went inane and others died o The clinical symptoms were referred to as the 4D’s: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death  Pellagra “ rough skin” Searching for the “Germ” of Pellagra  Pellagra was not a contagious disease spread by direct contact  The lower income, the greater the incidence of pellagra  He had filth parties, and he himself injected blood that contained pellagra Preventing and Curing Pellagra  Pellagra can be prevented by adding fresh meat, milk, eggs and vegetables to the diet. Pellagra preventive factor  Brewer’s yeast prevented and cured pellagra  Basic Diet 123 was what Goldberger called the diet he gave to the people  It was the Great Depression that changed dietary habits and eliminated pellagra, since people grew their own food, primarily in vegetable gardens  Understanding the cause of the disease might eliminate it more easily; simply identifying the cause of the disease, does not always result in an immediate cure  Uncovering the mystery of the red plague, helped lead to the discovery of antimetabolites: drugs designed to inhibit bacterial growth by interfering with their co enzymes or enzymes o Antibiotics “trick” the bacteria into accepting a non-functional analog of the coenzyme, and this “poisons” their vital functions The White Rice Plague  A neurological disease characterized by paralysis of the hands and feet, called “beriberi” meaning weakness or “ I cannot” because the sick person was too sick to do anything  There was a mystery disease in Japan called “national disease of Japan”. The disease manifested itself as a progressive loss of strength, loss of appetite, swelling of the ankles and thighs with great pain in the leg joints, loss of the ability to speak, and death from asphyxia and convulsions o Because the loss of sensation in the feet produced a characterized ankle drop, the disease was called kakke meaning “leg disease”  The treatment for kakke was acupuncture or scorching and blistering of the skin in order to draw out the toxic gases in the body  They concluded that beriberi was an infectious disease of an unusual character, since a single infection was insufficient to produce disease, and many injections were needed to become resistance  They speculated that beriberi was an airborne infection caused by a micrococcus that survived only under hot and humid conditions  The current definition of vitamin is an organic substance that is required in very small amounts for proper cell function and that cannot be manufactured in the body 1 Preventing and Curing Beriberi  Extensive studies by Eijkman showed that the husk alone contained the substance that was the “antineuritis factor” o Beriberi has been virtually eliminated by retaining the husk on the rice grain, or by adding vitamin supplements, but it does reoccur occasionally  Beriberi is seen a lot among alcoholic who lack solid food in the diet and who also require more thiamine to metabolize the large amounts of alcohol consumed  Thiamine is necessary for the normal cell metabolism of sugars and alcohol o A deficiency in thiamine leads to malfunction in cell activity and cell death, and the result is disease Plague of the Seafarer  Next to famine, scurvy has caused more suffering than any other nutritional disease in history  Symptoms: swelling of legs, skin spotted with spots of blood of a purple colour, mouths began to stink, gums were rotten, flesh did fall off, lack of energy, breathing became painful  Mal da Terre “ sickness of the land” , aka “explorers disease”  Indians came and recused the infected by offering a cure: extracts of pine needles  Scurvy appeared to be a characteristic of long sea voyages Search for the “Germ” of Scurvy  John Echth wrote that scurvy is a disease of the spleen o According to his theory of sad humor, suffers of scurvy had a swollen and hard spleen that blocked normal function and did not allow the black bile formed by the liver to be cleaned up o The black bile was dispersed and then rejected in the form of black spots on the skin  Principle causes among sailors: o Corrupted water, poo-quality food, lack of sleep, hard physical labour,  After the experiments on the ships, they noticed that fruits and berries that were acidic were able to cure scurvy o Potatoes also helped, contained a lot of vitamin c  Scurvy was not the result of a germ or toxin Preventing and Curing Scurvy  Vitamin C is required for normal health o Vitamin C is important in the manufacture of the proline-containing protein collagen, a major component of connective tissues found in tendon sand ligaments and in the walls of blood vessels o A deficiency in vitamin c shuts down the synthesis of collagen because the enzyme, proline hydroxylase, requires ascorbic acid as a cofactor o The role of vitamin c was dramatically shown in 1939 when Dr. John H. Crandon volunteered to be the experimental subject in a test of the effect of Vitamin C on wound healing. He made himself vitamin c deficient, and after 6 months there was no healing, and then each day for a week he took vitamin c and all his wounds were healed The Air Pollution Plague  Rickets is a disease of the bones. People with rickets have impaired rib development that results in a shortness of breath  Greek word, rachitis for spine; or rucket “ to breathe with difficulty”  Rickets is an old disease that became epidemic in England after 1650, whe
More Less

Related notes for HLTB21H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.