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Chapter 5

HLTA01 - Chapter 5 Notes - AIDS.docx
HLTA01 - Chapter 5 Notes - AIDS.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

HLTA01 – Plagues and People Chapter 5 – A Modern Plague, AIDS  A global disease and the first pandemic of the 21 century  No cure or vaccine  Afflicts 15 million people worldwide A Look Back  1981 – AIDS was first described, 10,000 people worldwide were infected by the virus that causes AIDS – human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)  HIV is a virus where the genetic material in the form of RNA, so in order for it to use the machinery of the eukaryotic host cell, it must subvert the cell’s machinery to copy viral RNA into DNA  The discovery of HIV began in 1884 with the development of the porcelain filter  Robert Gallo and Luc Montagnier identified the retrovirus responsible for the destruction of lymphocytes (HIV), where the host immune system was crippled, leading to the clinical syndrome of AIDS  1948 – several compounds that could interrupt the rampant replication of cancer cells o 1964 - Azidothymidine (AZT) became the first-line treatment for AIDS HIV’s Target: the Immune System  T lymphocytes – the cells that can be infected with HIV  The glycoproteins of the HIV capsid are called gp41 and gp120, which bind and anchor the HIV to the surface of the cell  CD4 allows for the docking of gp120, after binding there is fusion and entry of HIV  On HIV enters the cell, the capsid breaks down and virus RNA and reverse transcriptase are released, beginning to synthesize viral DNA from the viral RNA  Following virus assembly, the viruses leave the cell by budding, and in the process the host lymphocyte is destroyed; released viruses travel via the blood to various lymphoid organs  Because the HIV glycoproteins have a high affinity for CD4, the virus specifically attacks T4 lymphocytes and macrophages  The antibody cannot eliminate the virus because it is unable to act on viruses hidden away inside the T lymphocyte  The antibody can be useful as a diagnostic test for the presence of HIV (available since 1985). o If the serum contains antibody to HIV, they are seropositive o Usually becomes seropositive 6 to 8 weeks after an HIV infection HIV and AIDS  Approximately 90% infected die within 15 years if untreated  Characteristics of an HIV infection is depletion of T4 cells  Consequences of HIV include: o Opportunistic infections (PCP, cryptococcal meningitis, toxoplasmosis) o Severe athlete’s foot o White patches on the tongue o Kaposi’s sarcoma due to a human herpesvirus 8 “Catching” HIV  Not very contagious since the virus is killed by high temperature, detergents, and 10% chlorine bleach  Not vector-borne  Principally found in the secretions and body fluids of infected individuals o Most infectious sources are blood, breast milk, vaginal secretions, and semen o Infection may also result from injected of infected blood into the body, organ transplants, or ingestion of infected breast milk, and can cross th
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