SMALLPOX (1).docx

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

CHAPTER 12- SYPHILIS CHAPTER 9 – SMALL POX - Hernand coretes was a Spanish man who defeated the Aztec empire o With the help of small pox he successfully did it. o In an expedition led by narvez from cuba  On the crew slave infected from smallpox  Spread from village to village in yuctan - Small pox was a selective disease o Only Aztecs died and spainards left unharmed o Demoralized survivors - Pizzaro captured the Atahualpa – the leader of inca empire o Asked for a randsom of gold and once he got it he exectuted him o Small poxe helped when it landed in peru and killed the population o In 1531 when he arrived small pox already started so it weakned the inca empire - Old world disease o New world Amerindians never been exposed and no immunity\ - Changed the course of human history - Indiscrimitie no respect for social class occupation or age o It killed and disfigured everyone - It seemed that makeuo emerged for wealthy class to hide their disfigured face A LOOK BACK - most devastating human disease - no definitive answer as to when smallpox came and infected humans - believe it came from domesticating animals - best evidence is found in three mummies\ o pharaoh ramses V  died as a young man  shows scars of the disease: pockmarks - originated in agricultural valleys of Africa and india then spread west to china - seen in Greece and rome but not a mjor health threat till 100 AD and that is when the catastrophic epidemic of the plague of Antonine developed o that started in Mesopotamia and soilders brought it back to Italy o raged from 15 years o malaria led to the decline of smallpox - recorded in Korean peninsula from AD 583 o reached japan by AD 585 - major spread occurred in the eigth and nin1eth century during Islamic expansion across north Africa and into spain and Portugal - In AD 622 a Christian priest Ahrun o Wrote a clear description of the disease differentiating it from measles - Endemic in the more densely populated parts of Eurasia th - 16 century it was established in all of Europe - Frequency and intensity of smallpox epidemics occurred due to increasing populations and crowding - British and European explorers and colonists moved into the newly discovered Americas Australia and Africa small pox went with them - Contributed to settlement in north America - English used it as a weapon for germ warfare o Blankets diliberatley contaminated with scabby material from the smallpox pustules and delivered to Indians with initiating the disease THE DISEASE OF SMALLPOX - Cause of smallpox is a virus o One of the largest ones  With proper illumination can be seen with the light microscope  Details of it can be seen using elctron microscope  The ourter surface is a capsid  Resembles facets of a diamond  Inner shape of it contains genetic material o Has about 200 genes  35 involved in virulence - other pox viruses o monkeypox o cowpox o milker’s node o tanapox o chicken pox - enters body through droplet infection by inhalation - can be acquired through direct contact or contaminated fomites o can remain infectious for months - multiplies in the mucos membranes and nose - first week of infection no signs of illness o moves on to the lymph nodes and organs via blood stream o then the virus multiplies again th o 9 day the first symptms appear  headache, fever, chills nasea, muscle ache o a few days later a rash appears o individual is infectious a day before the rash appears and until all scabs have fallen off o complications of secondary infections  results in destruction of oil glands of the skin which leaves pockmarks - two pathological varieties o distignuieshed by differences in their genses  variola major  deadlier form  killed 25% of its victims  could climb up to 50% in naïve populations o variola minor  milder form  2% fatality rate th  more common in Europe in the 17 century  then mutated to the lethal form  in 17 century most common devestatining disease  caused one third of all blindness o th - beginning of 18 century 10% of the worlds population has been killed crippled or disfigured by small pox CATCHING SMALL POX - Person- person - Not zoonotic - Can exist in communities as long as there are succeptible humans - R0 = 5-10 - In temperate spreads during winter - In topic it spreads during dry season - You can be immune to it from previous exposure o Became a disease of childhood because older people already got it and if there was an outbreak it would only effect children VIRUOLATION - Early treatments for it involved prayers and quac
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