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Chapter 1-4

Chapter 1-4 Study

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Health Studies
Course Code
Caroline Barakat

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Chapter One: The Nature of Plagues - Incubation period: interval of time required for development of a disease - Latent period: seemingly inactive period between exposure to an infection and subsequent illness - Parasite virulence: capacity of a parasite to cause disease -Bacteria, fungi, protozoa single cell parasites - Herd Immunity - the state in which immunization levels are so high that even the small minority not immunized will still be protected. - Parasites Entities that are unable to survive on their own (life dependent) and require another living being for their nourishment; parasitism is not disgusting, simply a means to an end. We do the same eating and breathing in order to survive. - R0- basic reproductive ratio of the disease or the multiplier of the disease. - Transmission the movement of a parasite from host to host whether by direct or indirect means - Types of parasites: virus, bacteria, microparasite, macroparasite. - If the value for R is larger than 1, the seeds of the infection will lead to an ever-expanding spread of the disease an epidemic or a 0 plague. - If the value for 0 is less than 1, each infection produces few than one transmission stage and the parasite cannot establish itself. - Three factors that influence the occurrence of a disease: host, environment, agent. Portal of Entry: - Dermal through the skin ex. fungus. , Ingestion through the mouth, Inhalation during respiration. - Aspiration airway entry. - Clinical disease: Classic and severe disease, moderate severity mild illness, Subclinical disease: infection without clinical illness (asymptomatic infection; shows no symptoms), exposure without infection. - Plagues derived from plaga (to strike a blow that wounds), epidemic (Greek origin) epi (among) and demos (the people). Def. of plague: highly infectious, usually fatal epidemic disease. Legionnaires Disease Outbreak Philadelphia 1976 - Peter Turner, WWII veteran, fell ill following a stay at a hotel in Pennsylvania for a legionnaires convention. - Early symptoms: high fever, chills, headache, and muscle ache and pains, dry couch, chest pains, shortness of breath, vomiting, and diarrhea. - Final symptoms (a week later): lungs filled with fluid and pus, confusion, disorientation, hallucinations, and loss of memory. - 221 others legionnaires also became ill and 33 of them including Turner died of pneumonia. - Pathway of spread of disease: *aspiration* of bacteria (called Legionella) in *aerosolized* water from AC, while in lobby of the Bellevue- Stratford Hotel. - 11,000 documented cases of Legionnaires disease annual in the US and estimates of 100,000 with a fatality rate of 15%. Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) - Mary Benton. Symptoms: vomiting, high fever, light-headedness and fainting, sore throat, muscle ache. A day later, rash appeared and eyes become blot-shot. Within 3 to 4 days, confusion, fatigue, weaknes
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