Textbook Notes (363,137)
Canada (158,217)
HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter 1

Chapters 1, 2, 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Parasites organism that grow, feds, and is sheltered an or in a different organism and that does not contribute to the survival of its host Virus ultimate mirco-parasite smaller than bacteria; neither cells not organism; can only reproduce with their host Marco-parasites composed of many cells; cycles through transmission stages (eggs and larvae) which pass into the external environment Transmission movement of a parasite from host to host Incubation period interval of time required for development of a disease Latent period seemingly inactive period between exposure to an inflection and subsequent illness Parasite virulence capacity of a parasite to cause disease Zoonotic infections animal infections that can be transmitted to humans R 0reproductive ratio of disease) - how many people one person can affect; # of 2 infections expected Main factors that influence the occurrence of a disease: 1.host (immunity, genetics, nutrition) 2.environment (promote exposure) 3.agent (biological, physical, chemical, psychosocial, rate of growth, persistence) Mode of disease transmission: Direct transmission from person to person Indirect through a common ratevector eg. Contaminated waterair Portal of entry: Dermal through the skin eg. Fungus Ingestion through the mouth eg. E.coli in water Inhalation during respiration eg. Particulate matter Aspiration airway entry Types of diseases: -broad spectrum of disease severity iceberg concept Tuberculosis infectious disease that most commonly attack the lungs Measles common skin rash, transmitted from respiration Rabies affects central nervous system, transmitted through saliva Types of disease outbreaks: 1.endemic usual occurrence of a disease within a given geographical area 2.epidemic occurrence of a disease in excess of normal expectancy 3.pandemic worldwide epidemic Type 1 epidemic: large pop. Regular outbreaks; disease never completely disappears; R >1 0 Type 2 epidemic: regular outbreaks; not enough susceptible individuals; R <1 0 Type 3 epidemic: irregular outbreaks; long periods of no disease; R <1 0 Attack rate: measure of outbreak; ratio of #people with illnesstotal #people at risk Determinants of disease outbreaks: Herd immunity resistance of a group to an disease attack due to immunity incubation period Attack rate ratio of the # people in whom a certain illness developstotal # people at risk Definition of plagues -highly infectious, usually fatal epidemic disease -serious, potentially life-threatening infectious disease that is usually transmitted to humans by the nites of rodent fleas Plagues of Antiquity -5000 BC to 700 AD -characterised by parasites with long lived transmission stages www.notesolution.com
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