Textbook Notes (363,120)
Canada (158,212)
HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter 4

Chapters 4, 5, 6

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Leprosy (Hansens disease) Egyptian Papyrus document (1550 BC); Indian writings, approx. 600 BC; Ancient Greece, after army of Alexander the Great returned from India (320 BC); Rome (62 BC) returned with Pompeiis troops from Asia Minor Disease of soul Thought to be hereditary illness, caused by curse of punishment of God Lepers were stigmatized special clothing, arrival notification, separate hospitals, leprosariums First leper house - England 936 AD Mid-12 century loss of civic status removal from public office; 13 century - 19,000 leprosaria in use Mass of Separation; Decline around 1350 AD; Spread to North America Dr. Armauer Hansen of Norway-1873. Discovers the leprosy germ under a microscope Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae ) Slow multiplying bacillus - average doubling time of 12 14 days Incubation period of 3 5 yrs Thought to be transmitted via droplets, from the nose during close and frequent contact Not highly infectious may be related to genetic susceptibility Mainly affects the skin, nerves, and mucous membranes Risk All races; common in warm, wet areas in the tropics and subtropics; between the ages of 10 and 14 years old, 35-44 years old Rarely seen in infants; Genetic susceptibility Indeterminate Leprosy (IL) earliest, mildest form; usually few lesions; loss of sensation is rare Tuberculosis Leprosy (TT) Development of large lesions; loss of sensation; affected nerves become thick; progression can occur to BT Borderline Tuberculoid Leprosy (BT) lesions are smaller and more numerous Borderline Lepromatous Leprosy (BL) lesions are numerous, papules, plaques; punched-out lesions (inverted saucers); disease may return Lepromatous Leprosy (LL) never reverts to less severe; early symptoms (nasal stuffiness, discharge, bleeding, swelling at legs, ankles) skin thickens; eyebrows, eyelashes lost; nose deformationcollapses; ear lobes thicken; photophobia (light sensitivity)blindness; enlarged liver and lymph nodes; hoarseness in voice; fingers and toes become deformed Diagnosis and Treatment Based on clinical symptoms; laboratory studies Chaulmoogra nut; promin (1941); Dapsone (1950s); WHO recommends multidrug therapy (MDT) dapsone, rifampicin, clofazimine Nine-banded armadillo www.notesolution.com
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