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HLTA01- Definitions

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Health Studies
Anna Walsh

HLTA01H3S Plagues and Peoples Glossary of Epidemiologic Terms Populations at risk: These can be identified by studying the distribution of the disease within host populations by species, breed, age and sex. Descriptions of population densities and movements are also of great value, particularly when the disease is transmitted by contact. Distribution of disease: events in time and space. This generally involves looking for the clustering of disease events in time, space or both. The clustering of disease: events in time may indicate that the host population was exposed to a common source of the disease or its determinant. Seasonal clustering of disease events often indicates the influence of climatic determinants in some form or other. The distribution of disease: events in populations in time and space can be described by three basic descriptive terms. These are: endemic, epidemic and sporadic. An endemic disease: is a disease that occurs in a population with predictable regularity and with only minor deviations from its expected frequency of occurrence. In endemic diseases, disease events are clustered in space but not in time. [localized] An epidemic disease: is a disese that occurs in a population in excess of its normally expected frequency of occurrence. In an epidemic disease, disease events are clustered in time and space. Note that a disease may be epidemic even at a low frequency of occurrence, provided that it occurs in excess of its expected frequency. [takes on a continent or a country] A pandemic: is a large epidemic affecting several countries or even one or more continents. [the disease spans the entire world] A sporadic disease: is a disease that is normally absent from a population but which can occur in that population, although rarely and without predictable regularity. Age-adjusted mortality rate: A mortality rate statistically modified to eliminate the effect of different age distributions in the different populations. Agent: A factor, such as a microorganism, chemical substance, or form of radiation, whose presence, excessive presence, or (in deficiency diseases) relative absence is essential for the occurrence of a disease.[cause of the disease] 1 www.notesolution.com
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