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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Smallpox Smallpox (variola) no longer is an active infection Virus exists only in labs It was an acute disease usually transmitted by airborne droplets n entering the body thru the upper respiratory tract Never acute, but during its last decades of existence antibiotics were often prescribed to prevent or limit secondary infections Smallpox appears to have been an exclusively human infection Variola major, with a mortality rate commonly of 25 to 30% Variola minor, with mild symptoms n a death rate of 1% or less o Worst is variola major Etiology and Epidemiology Source of smallpox was always a human being wid the infection Virus cud survive in scabs 4 considerable periods, n laundry workers on occasion contracted the disease from clothing n bedding of smallpox patients, but most transmissions were airborne n occurred over distances of no more than a few meters Clinical Manifestations and Pathology Incubation period was abt 12 days Onset was abrupt n prostrating: high fever, headache, n pain in the back n muscles; n in children, sumtimes vomiting n convulsions o In severe cases: death cud occur Patients survive to experience the characteristic rash 2 to 5 days after onset Among the possible sequelae were blindness n, at least occasionally, male infertility Probable sequel was a pocked n scarred face, appalling to others as well as to the survivor Immunology Smallpox infection ended in one of only two ways: death or long-lasting immunity Smallpox existed only as an active infection History Antiquity Smallpox cudnt have existed wid its historical characteristics among the sparse populations of the Paleolithic Age Nine Through Fifteenth Century It was a common childhood disease in southwest Asia in Rhazes (a Baghdad physician) time Sixteenth Through Seventeenth Century Spread from one country to another..became more popular since now found in few more countries Eighteenth Century It destroyed half the indigenes, by English estimates, and spread over the Blue Mountains into the interior Smallpox accounted 10-15% of all deaths in sum European countries annually by this time, 80% of these victims were under age of 10 Variolation The artificial infection wid smallpox of healthy ppl Variolation was practiced for a long time, not by formally trained physicians, but by fold healers Vaccination English variolator n scientist, Edward Jenner, noticed that the variolation failed to produce symptoms of illness in ppl who had previously contracted a mild pox disease from livestock, usually cattle He vaccinated several ppl, with cowpox matter, n then attempted variolation Nineteenth Century Vaccination continued to spread, n in sum countries was even made compulsory, at least for infants Twentieth Century October 1975, last case of smallpox (variola major) in Asia October 1977, the rash of variola minor appeared on the skin of sum1 in was the last case of this kind of smallpox n the last case of naturally occurring smallpox in the world Humanity won the victory against the smallpox virus by displacing it wid the vaccine virus Diseases of the Renaissance and Early Modern Europe The Renaissance in European history was a time of political, intellectual, and cultural change that its origins in Italy during the 14 century Literati began to look to classical Greece n Rome for models of human political behaviour n stylistic models of discourse n artistic representation Humanistic quest involved the energies of philosophers n artists throughout the 15 , 16 ,th th and 17 centuries We r inclined to associate the issue of Renaissance diseases wid both the growth of cities n the age of European discovery The period also frames the era of recurrent epidemics of bubonic plague in Europe Population growth in Europe was steady during the central, or High, Middle Ages but did not lead to the growth of large metropolitan centres Urbanization was earliest n most dramatic in the Mediterranean lands, where city cultures had also been the basis of ancient Roman hegemony Outside the urban Mediterranean, the period or Renaissance is better labelled the late Middle Ages The Black Death epidemic of bubonic plague in 1348-50 caused up to 40% overall mortality in large cities, n as much as 60% mortality in smaller Italian cities such as Siena Plague Called Black appeared in Europe at least once every generation b/w 1350 n 1720 Plague was largely confined to urban areas Bubonic plague epidemics were principally summer infections, no doubt augmented in severity by diarrheal diseases Sum ppl think that either climatic changes or changes in trade patterns led to the retreat of plague from Europe Other Epidemics History of other infections transmitted by airborne droplets is a patchy one during the Renaissance Smallpox and the Modern Rise of Population Long recognized as a contagious disease wid a pustular rash Distinctive clinical features, such as the simultaneous maturation of pustules n the centripetal distribution of pustules over the body, were not noted Likelihood of getting a diseases depends on nutrition A Reporter At Large By Richard Preston Killed more ppl than any other infectious disease, including Black Death of the Middle Ages Smallpox is explosively contagious, n travels thru air After infected, there is a typical incubation period of 10 days Illness hits with a spike of fever, a backache, n vomiting, n a bit later tiny red spots appear all over body
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