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HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter 2

Study Notes -- Power of Plagues Chapter 2

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

The Power of Plagues Chapter 2 Plagues, the Price of Being Sedentray: Becoming Human, Becoming Parasitized: - Africa was the cradle of humanity, hominids found - Hominids: animals ancestral to modern humans and not closely related to other monkeys and apes - Fossils of several different species found 4.2 million years ago - Australopithecus anamenis: discovered in Kenya in 1994split from ape lineage - spent time in trees and behaved similar to chimpanzees - A. afarensis: walked on two feet shown in fossil findingsmoved from trees to land. - freed them from diseases in the canopies of trees, but allowed for new diseases to develop on land. (ex: in trees, susceptible to fleas, mosquitoes, etc. On land, susceptible to air borne ticks and new food sources, etc.) -life span of 18-23 years - Australopithecus boisei: small-brained vegetarian - Homo habilis (handy man): scavangers and gatherers - used tools to break down animal carcasses - suggested greater intelligence than A. afrensis, somewhat larger brain aswell - with meat eating came an increase in parasitism - developed Zoonoses: animal infections transmitted to humans (anthrax, tetanus bacteria, round worm that causes trichinosis, and a variety of intestinal tapeworms) - bitten by mosquitoes (yellow fever), ticks, mites, and tsetse flies, and probably had head lice - suffered from non-vector-borne diseases that causes hepatitis, herpes, and colds, sleep sickness, malaria, and leprosy. - Homo erectus (erect man): close to modern humans in bosy size and had larger brain than H. habilis - hunter gatherers that used tools such as hand axes to break down food, etc. www.notesolution.com
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