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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Smallpox.docx

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Textbook Chapter 9 Smallpox the Spotted Plague 191Smallpox killed the Aztecs in the war between Cortes Spaniards and AztecsIn 1520 an expedition led by Panfilo de Narveez arrived from Spanish Cuba among the crew was a smallpoxinfected slave From this initial infection smallpox spread from village to village throughout the Yucatanfamine and havoc resultedIn the time of Cortes3 million Amerindians 13 of total of Mexico were killed by SmallpoxSmallpox also affected the battle between Francisco Pizarro Spanish and Atahualpa Inca Empire in 1532 because smallpox wiped out most of the Inca Empire in 1526 and they were vulnerable for Pizarro Smallpox spread in advance of the Spaniards entry into Mexico and PeruDisease moved ahead of the Spanish and in effect smallpox cleared the waythth In the 20 century only smallpox killed 300 million people3x theof deaths from all 20 century warsSmallpox has been involved not only with war but also with exploration and migration Smallpox is indiscriminate with no respect for social class occupation or ageIn Europe the use of makeup began among wealthy survivors in order to hid smallpoxinduced scarsA Look Back 192 When smallpox began to infect humans is not known it is thought that humans got it from one of the poxlike diseases of domesticated animals in Asia or Africa sometime after 10 000 BCBest evidence of smallpox in humans is found in 3 Egyptian mummies 15701085 BCone of which is Pharaoh Ramses V five Mummified face neck and shoulders of the Pharaoh bear the telltale scars of smallpox pockmarks Smallpox spread from the West to China first appearing about 200 BCTrade caravans assisted in the spread of smallpox but at time of Christs birth it was not established in Europethe populations were too small and greatly dispersedSmallpox was known in Greece and Rome but was not a health threat till about AD 100Plague of AntoniusEpidemic started in Mesopotamia and the returning soldiers brought it home to Italy It raged for 15 years and 2000 deaths daily in Rome Marcus Aurelius died of smallpox in AD 180Smallpox and malaria contributed to the decline of Roman Empirethth Records of smallpox in Korean peninsula AD583 Japan AD 585 Western Eurasia 89 century during Islamic expansion across North Africa and into Spain and Portugal and Huns were infected in Persia or India th In records smallpox was established in ItalyFrance in 5 century but it is believed Huns brought it to Europe Christian priest Ahrun AD 622 and Persian physician AlRazi AD 910 wrote a clear description of smallpox differentiating it from measles By AD 1000 smallpox endemic in densely populated parts of Eurasia African countries Mediterranean Sea areaTraders slavers and caravans helped spread the diseasethth Smallpox reintroduced to Europe through movement of people tofrom Asia Minor during Crusades in 1213 centuryAs Europes population increased smallpox epidemics appeared with increasing intensity and frequency th Smallpoxserious in England and Europe in 16 century Smallpox went with British and Europeans into newly discovered Americas Australia and AfricaSmallpox also contributed to the settlement of North America by French and English English used smallpox as a germ warfare in 1763 in war between England and France Sir Geoffrey CommanderinChief of North America sent smallpoxinfected blankets to IndiansIndians lostIn 1490 smallpox was spread to Southern regions of West Africa by PortugueseSmallpox first introduced to South Africa by ship docking in Capetown in 1713 that carried contaminated bed linen from India st 1 outbreak in AmericasAfrican slaves on the island of Hispaniola in 1518Slaves also brought smallpox to the Portuguese colony of Brazilst Smallpox 1 recorded in Sydney Australia in 1789 year after British established a penal colony thereSoon decimated many aboriginal tribesThe Disease of Smallpox 195
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