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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Tuberculosis.docx

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Aqdas QasemPlagues and PeoplesTuberculosis Text Chpt13 CR 10591065 270278 20101024 Textbook Chapter 13The Peoples Plague Tuberculosis 275 Consumption what Tuberculosis was called was characterized in an 1853 medical text as having the following features nostalgia depression and excessive sexual indulgence Tuberculosis TB was given another name by the afflicted ones The White PlagueTB caused incessant coughing made it almost impossible to eat and talk and pain when breathing which caused weight loss and prevented walking the pain that required opium and whisky to ameliorate By the time of death individuals resembled a cadaver Consumptive decline was thought to be due to a hereditary predisposition or specific living habits ie poverty or sexual promiscuityA Look Back 276 Tuberculosis of the lungs called pulmonary TB is the form of the disease we are most familiar with giving rise to the slang word lunger in the United States the lung is the primary site of infection in 8085 casesWhen localized to the lungs TB can run an acute course causing extensive destruction in a few monthssocalled galloping consumptionTB can also wax and ane with period of remission mistaken in some cases for chronic bronchitis with spitting of bloodTB can affect organs other than the lungs as well including the intestine and larynx sometimes the lymph nodes in the neck producing of swelling called scrofulaTB can also produce fusion of vertebrae and deformation of the spine called Potts diseasehunchback and may also affect skin and kidneys Microbes causing TB are called mycobacteriafree living relatives inhabit the soil and waterMycobacteria have a protective cell wallThree types of mycobacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis M leprae and M avium which are human pathodgen that respectively cause TB leprosy and a pulmonary disease with swollen glands in the neck M avium is an opportunistic infection found in some AIDS people M tuberculosis is a parasite of cattle M boviscan affect people with difficulty and is not associated with the lungs M tuberculosis grows best in high oxygen levels and is associated with pulmonary TB because lungs have high oxygen levelsM bovis is associated with TB of the spine and results from a blood infection that spreads to the spine via lymph vessels M bovis first affected humans through milk M tuberculosis is specific to humans and spreads through droplets of saliva and mucusM bovis and M tuberculosis are more than 995 alikeEvidence of TB is found in bony remains that predate human writing and Potts diseas had described in Egyptian mummies dating from 3700 BC TB of the lungs is more recent than of the bones By this info it is thought that M tuberculosis evolved from M bovis after cattle was domesticatedGreek physician Hippocrates called the disease phthisisHippocrates thought the disease was due to evil air and did not consider it contagiousAristotle suggested that it might be contagious and due to bad and heavy breathBy them time of Galen the theory of contagion of phthisis was accepted in Roman Empire but the contagious agent could not be foundDuring the Middle Ages in Europe Royalty claimed that they have special powers and can heal diseases especially scrofula by simply just touching them and making the sing of the crossan accurate description of ceremony is given in Macbeth and in England was known as the Kings Evil or Royal TouchingMost pathologists at the time believed that the disease was due to tumours or abnormal glands instead of infectionFirst credible speculation of infectious nature of TB was of Benjamin Marten who in 1772 proposed that the cause was an animalcule or their seed transmitted by Breath from the lungs that another person can catchIn 1780 were TB was at its peak in England it was estimated that 20 of deaths were from TB Page1
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