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Health Studies

Plagues and People Notes Chapter 1the Nature of PlaguesSymptoms of pneumonia fever chills headache muscle aches dry cough chest pains shortness of breath vomiting diarrhea lungs filled with fluid and pus confusion disorientation hallucinations loss of memoryIn 1976 Peter Turner a world war 2 veteran attended the Legion convention in Philadelphia and was the first to get this disease in the hotel where he was for a conventionLegionnaires disease effected 221 people and 33 died from pneumoniaNo person to person spreadAir was the probable pathway of this disease spreading and the most popular theory was that infection resulted from aspiration produced by choking secretions in the mouth get past the chocking reflex and instead of going into the esophagus and stomach mistakenly enter the lungs of bacteria called legionella in aerosolized water from either cooling towers or evaporative condensers Protective mechanisms that normally prevent aspiration are defective in older people smokers and people with lung disease 11000 cases documented of Legionnaires disease in the US annually and estimates of 100000 with a fatality rate of 15 Outbreaks have been traced to water heaters whirlpool baths respiratory therapy equipment an ultrasonic misters used in grocery storesToxic Shock Syndrome or TSS is a gender specific diseaseMary Benton graduate student and English composition TA at USLA was the first to get itEach case began with vomiting and high fever followed by light headedness fainting soar throat and muscle aches A day later victim got a rash and eyes become bloodshot red 34 days later victim suffered confusion fatigue weakness thirst rapid pulse cool and moist skin and rapid breathing This was followed by a sudden drop in blood pressure and shock if it remained long enoughFrom 1979 to 1996 it effected 5296 woman generally around age 22 with a peak death rate of 4TSS was not an STDWas linked to the use of certain kinds of tampons especially those containing cross linked carboxylmethyl celluslose with polyester foam which provided a favourable environment for the toxin producing S aureusElevated vaginal temperature and neutral pH were enhanced by the use of these super absorbent tamponsThese tampon brands were removed from the market by the late 1800sSARS severe acute respiratory syndrome began in Feb 2003 when a Chinese physician who worked in a hospital in Guangdong southern china travelled to Hong Kong and became ill and then died His brother in law was in contact with him for 10 hours got it 3 days later and died 3 weeks later Symptoms were fever dry cough sore throat headache and difficulty breathingIn 4 months sars lead to 8000 cases and 800 deaths in 27 countriesEconomic cost was 100 billion The germs that caused these diseases are called parasites which are unable to survive on their own and require another living bring for their nourishment Parasitism is to obtain the resources needed for growth an reproduction The parasite benefits at the expense of their host and often end up harming the host causing the host to get a diseaseParasites come in forms such as bacteria fungi and protozoa all single cell roundworms mosquitoes flies ticks all multi cellular and virus Some such as tapeworm hookworm malaria parasite and HIV live inside the body while some such as ticks and chiggers live on the surfaceThe movement of parasite from host to host is called transmission and living organisms that are involved in this are called vectorsBacteriavirus and protozoa are called macro parasites because they cant be seen without a
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