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Chapter 3

Plagues and People; Chapter 3

5 Pages

Health Studies
Course Code
Caroline Barakat

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Chapter 3Six Plagues of Antiquity Plagues came to be a record only in our recent past in a time when we became farmers less plagues in the huntergatherers time no domesticationVectors of Malaria and Yellow Fever may have been present at the huntergatherer stage The diseases of antiquity 500 BC t o700 AD where characterized by parasites with longlived transmission stages exeggs and also persontoperson contactThe were characterized by parasites with longlived transmission stage as well those that involved person to person contact The Pharaohs Plague blood fluke disease The disease that causes blood to appear in the urine hematuria In 1910 Marc Armand Ruffer examined Egyptian mummies and found the calcified eggs of the blood fluke in the kidneys of several Fossil snails capable of transmitting blood fluke disease have been found in the well water of Jericho Snail fever has existed in tropical and sub tropical parts of the world especially EgyptBlood fluke and pharaohs plague disease are not as fatal as Malaria and yellow fever but they are corrosive Snail fever also known as blood fluke or endemic Hematuria blood in the urine involves feces or urine water snails and a flatworm The soldiers of Napoleons army during the invasion of Egypt 1799 to 1801 where the first Europeans to Experience itBloody urine is a symptom of the disease and had a higher frequency in men Blood fluke disease is also called schistosomiasis or bilharzia Theodor Bilharz a German physician working in Egypt made a discovery that worms where found in the blood vessels He named the worm Distomum Haematobium which in 1858 was then changed to Schistosoma In 1851 Bilharz saw microscopic eggs in the female worm with a pointed spine A year later her saw these eggs in the bladder and within the eggs he saw a small motile embryo The eggs would hatch to release a small ciliated larva that swam around for an hour and then disintegratedIn 1870 Spencer Cobbold found that although the eggs dont hatch in urine they do in fresh or brackish water In 1904 japanese physicians found that a related blood fluke named Schistosoma japonicum could also infect humans but it had eggs without a spine another know species of human effecting blood flukes In 1905 Patrick Manson discovered a schistosome egg with a spine on its side which was in the feces of an English man who had never visited Africa It was named Schistosoma mansoni Another known species of human effecting blood flukes 3 forms of blood fluke that infect humans Infection was acquired by bathing in infested water The snails Bulinus and Biomphalaria where the vectors of blood fluke Cercariae that hatched from Biomphalaria produced eggs with lateral spines and those from Bulinus produced eggs with a terminal spine Smansoni remained in the liver and laid its eggs there whereas Shaematobium left the liver for the veins surrounding the bladder Life cycle of snail fever on reaching the fresh water the discharged eggs release a swimming larva the miracidium Miracida are shortlived but if they encounter suitable snail they penetrate the soft tissues usually the foot migrate to the liver and change in form sporocyst for 6 to 7
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