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HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Study guide

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Chapter 9: Smallpox, the Spotted Plague Hernan Cortes and his troops set out to explore and claim Mexico for their king, Charles V. Cortess ally in the defeat of the Aztecs was smallpox. But small pox was present long before their arrival. In 1520, an expedition led by Panfilo de Narvaez, had a smallpox- infected slave among his crew. This initial infection, spread throughout the Yucatan. Smallpox was a selective diseaseonly the Aztecs died. Smallpox was an Old World disease, where the New World Amerindians had never been exposed and had no immunity. Smallpox is indiscriminate. A Look Back Suspected the infectious agent was from a pox-like disease from domesticated animals, in agricultural settlements of Asia or Africa, some time after 10,000 BC. Best evidence of smallpox in humans is in three Egyptian mummies from 1570 to 1085 BC. One of these being Pharaoh Ramses V. The mummies show pockmarks, which are craterlike scars. From origins in Africa and India, smallpox spread from the west to China, first appearing about 200 BC. Was known in Greece and Rome but was not a threat until about AD 100. Epidemic started in Mesopotamia and soldiers brought it home to Italy. It raged for 15 years. Records of smallpox in the Korean peninsula from ad 583. Reached Japan by AD 585. In the western part of Eurasia, spread of smallpox occurred in the 8 th th and 9 centuries during the Islamic expansion across North Africa and into Spain and Portugal. The Huns were infected in either Persia or India. th In the 5 century when the Huns descended into Europe, they may have carried smallpox with them, but it may have already been established in France and Italy. By AD 1000 smallpox was probably endemic in densely populated parts of Eurasia, from Spain to Japan, as well as African countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Moved people to and from Asia Minor during the Crusades in the 12 th and 13 centuries helped reintroduce smallpox to Europe. www.notesolution.com
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