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HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Plagues and Peoples Textbook: Chapter One The Nature of Plagues September 28, 2010. Legionnaires Disease Outbreak Philadelphia 1976 - (1976) Peter Turner, WWII veteran, fell ill following a stay at a hotel in Pennsylvania for a legionnaires convention. - Early symptoms: high fever, chills, headache, and muscle ache and pains. - Later symptoms (a few days later): dry couch, chest pains, shortness of breath, vomiting, and diarrhea. - Final symptoms (a week later): lungs filled with fluid and pus, confusion, disorientation, hallucinations, and loss of memory. - 221 others legionnaires also became ill and 33 of them including Turner died of pneumonia. - Pathway of spread of disease: *aspiration* of bacteria (called Legionella) in *aerosolized* water from AC, while in lobby of the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel. - Unlike infections caused by inhalation, aspiration is produced by choking. Secretions in the mouth get past the choking reflex and, instead of going into the esophagus and stomach, mistakenly enter the lungs. Protective mechanisms that normally prevent aspiration are defective in older people, smokers, and those with lung disease. The Legionnaires were perfect candidates. And Now .... - Since this outbreak, there have been 11,000 documented cases of Legionnaires disease annual in the US and estimates of 100,000 with a fatality rate of 15%. - Outbreaks have been traced to water heaters, whirlpool baths, respiratory therapy equipment, and ultrasonic misters used in grocery stores. A Few Years Later; Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) - Mary Benton, graduate student and English TA at UCLA experienced great pain every time she went to the washroom. www.notesolution.com
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