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HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Syphilis

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Aqdas Qasem Plagues and Peoples Syphilis (Text. Chpt.12, C.R. 1025-1032) 2010-10-24 Textbook: Chapter 12: The Great Pox Syphilis (255) - Tuskegee Syphilis Study: 1932, US Public Health Service enlisted 399 poor, black males in Macon County, Alabama, all with latent syphilis. They were offered financial incentives (ex: free burial if agreed to autopsy) free physical exams, and aspirin when needed. Men and family not told they had syphilis. They were deprived of treatment for their syphilis. 28 men died of syphilis, 100 others died of related complications, 40 wives infected, and 19 children. Designed to document the natural history of syphilis, but went terribly wrong. A Look Back - From 1493 onward swept over Europe and the rest of the world. -1494: King Charles Vlll of France invades Italy. During the attack, his troops, fell ill with the Greart Pox, and this forced their withdrawal. Following this, the disease spread throughout Europe and spread to the rest of the world. - Theory: Brought to Naples by the Spanish troops sent to support against attack from King Charles Vlll. - The French called this pox the disease of Naples, blaming the Italians for it, and the Italians called it the French Disease. In England called it the Spanish Disease - Symptoms: fevers, open sores, disfiguring scars, disabling pains in the joints, and gruesome deaths. - Two theories of how Charles VIIs men caught the disease: Columbian and pre-Columbiananti- Columbian theory. - Columbian Theory: Introduced to Europe from the New World Columbian Theory Written record Skeletal remains from the Americas The pattern of spread of the disease - pre-Columbian TheoryAnti-Columbian: holds that syphilis was present in Europe before the discovery of the Americas by Europeans. Unitarian versus non-unitarian theory Many populations of native Americans themselves were decimated by syphilis in the 16th century after the arrival of the Europeans - Theories for the rapid outbreak of syphilis: (1) kissing (because that was the greeting in England), shared drinks, canker on lips misunderstood to be cold sore. - Tried Mercury for the treatment; either applied directly to sores or taken in the form of a drink. Treatment known as salivation. Spirochete Discovered (260) - Girolamo Fracastoro called disease syphilis after a fictitious shepherd, named Syphilis, who got it by cursing the gods. - Frit Schaudinn and Erich Hoffman identified slender, spiral-shaped bacterium, a spirochete, in the syphilitic chancres (a dull red, hard, insensitive lesion that is the first manifestation of syphilis). - Baciteria: Treponema pallidum - Can be growin in lab animals such as rabbits and guinea pigs, but humans are the only natural hosts. - Took so long to discover bacteria because syphilis was confused with gonorrhoea at the time. The Disease Syphilis (262) Page 1 www.notesolution.com
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