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HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7 malaria study guide

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Chapter 7: Malaria, Another Fever Plague A Look Back Records of malaria have been found in the Ebers papyrus, clay tablets from the library of king Ashurbanipal and in Chinese medical text. Records describe, enlarged spleens, periodic fevers, headache, chills and fever. Malaria came to Europe from Africa via the Nile valley or by close contact between Europeans and the Asia Minor. Hippocrates describes two types of malaria, the benign tertian with recurrent fevers every third day and the quartan with fevers on the fourth day. He also noted that people living near marshes had enlarged spleens. Hippocrates did not describe the malignant tertian malaria in Greece, even though it was present in the Roman republic by 200 BC. Spread across Europe reaching Spain and Russia by the 12 century and England in the 14 century. By the 1800s it was found worldwide. On 20 October 1880, Laveran examined blood from a soldier with malaria and found transparent globules containing black-brown malaria pigment within the red blood cells. He also found mobile filaments emerging from the clear spherical bodies, a process he called exflagellation. Laveran also discovered that some patients had blood cells shaped like crescents. It wasnt until 1884 that Laverns work was confirmed. Rosss mentor Manson encouraged him to study mosquito transmission. He went on studying various mosquitoes but it wasnt until 1897 that he studied the anopheles mosquito, which can carry the malaria parasites. In 1898 Ross was able to determine that malaria was not conveyed by dust or bad air but that it had infectious stages in the mosquito to the salivary glands Grassi recognized that he had to identify the mosquito that transmitted human malaria and then demonstrated the mosquito cycle for human malaria. Grassi demonstrated that the mosquito that bites a malaria suffer, could give malaria to a healthy individual. Malaria is induced in a host by the introduction of sporozoits through an infectious female mosquito, but the parasites do not immediately appear in the blood. www.notesolution.com
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