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HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter 1

The Nature of Plagues and the Price of Being Sedentary -Ch.1 and 2.docx

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Department
Health Studies
Course
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat
Semester
Fall

Description
Prashanthan Sep/13/2012 The Nature of Plagues and the Price of Being Sedentary Ch. 1  Plague: The sudden increase in a number of people in a population affected by a disease.  Epidemiologist: are disease forecasters who study patterns in the spread and control of a disease by using statistic data and mathematical modeling also used to identify the causes, modes, and likelihoods of the disease transmission. R0  For an infection to persist it must transmit the infection to someone else. The number of individuals infected by an infected person i0 R .  The longer someone is infected and the greater number of contacts the greater the value of0R and the faster it will spread Epidemics  Type 1: pop is large, pattern shows regular outbreaks, and it never completely disappears.  Type 2: peaks are discontinuous, regular occurrences.  Type 3: occurs in smaller communities, increased # of cases, and long periods of time with no cases. Evolutionary Fitness  The success of the individuals passing of genes to future generations, through survival and reproduction. Legionnaires’ Disease  Symptoms: high fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, dry cough, chest pains, breath shortness, diarrhea, vomiting o Within 1 week, lungs filled with fluid & pus, confusion, disorientation, hallucinations, memory loss  Caused by Legionella  Infected water sources evaporate into small water droplets o Legionella inside water droplet breathed in  Taken in through aspiration o Protective mechanisms preventing aspiration defective in smokers, elderly, and lung disease ppl Toxic Shock Syndrome  Symptoms: vomiting, high fever, lightheadedness, sore throat, muscle aches. Prashanthan Sep/13/2012 o 3-4 days later: rash on thigh, blood-shot eyes, cool/moist skin, rapid heart rate, sudden drop in blood pressure, rapid breathing, fatigue o Low blood pressure eventually leads to circulatory collapse, causing shock  Gender-specific STI (sexually transmitted infection)  Caused by Staphylococcus aureus  Linked to tampon brand (bacteria breeding ground) o Caused reflux of blood and bacteria into vagina Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)  Symptoms: headache, dry cough, sore throat, fever  Transmission: droplet secretions from nose and mouth (direct)  Highly contagious Ch.2  Africa was home to humanity  The earliest evidence of hominids were unearthed 4.2 million years ago, they split from apes and were called Australopithecus Anamensis  Evidence of an erect upright posture was found in Ethiopia and Tanzania 3.8-3.0 million years ago in the A.afarensis Australopithecus Anamensis  The descent from trees freed them of some diseases, yet introduced them to others, such as ticks, flies, and other “ bloodsucking parasites” Australopithecus Boisei  Originated around 2.5-1.8 million years ago , appearing in fossil record with several other hominids such as the Homo habilis  Small-brained vegetarians Homo Habilis  The Homo habilis aka the “handy man” was a scavenger and used simple stone tools.  The species had contact with diseases as they were nomadic allowed interactions
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