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HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter 01


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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

HLTA01 CHAPTER 01: NATURE OF PLAGUES Case 01: LEGIONAIRES DISEASE - Peter Turner (WW2 veteran) commander of Pennsylvania division of American Legion - Attended American legion convention and stayed at the bellvue-stratford hotel - Two days later, Turner fell very ill INITIAL SYMPTOMS: - High fever - Chills - Headaches - Muschle aches/pain SECONDARY SYMPTOMS (within a few days): - Dry cough - Chest pains - Shortness of breath - Diarrhea - Vomiting TERTIARY SYMPTOMS (within a week): - Lungs filled with fluid and pus - Experienced confusion - Disorientation - Hallucinations - Loss of memory - of 221 legionaries that fell sick, 33 including Turner died from pneumonia - this outbreak was referred to as LEGIONNARIES DISEASE - statistical studies revealed that all who became ill had spent more time at the Bellevue hotel PROBABLE PATHWAY FOR SPREAD OF DISEASE: - air - aspiration of bacteria (LEGIONELLA) - spread of germ through hotel air conditioning system INFECTION THROUGH ASPIRATION: - produced by choking - secretions in mouth get passed the choking reflex and instead of going into esophagus and stomach, mistakenly enters the lungs - there are protective mechanisms that prevent aspiration but lacks in older people, smokers, or people with lung disease OUTBREAK OF LEGIONNAIRES: - 11,000 documented cases annually in US - Estimates go as high as 100 000 - Fatality rate of 15% - Outbreaks have been traced to water heaters, whirlpool baths, respiratory therapy equipment and ultrasonic misters used in grocery stores CASE 02: TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME - Mary Benton doubling over in pain when she went to bathroom SYMPTOMS: - Nausea - Chills - Diarrhea - Head ache - Sore throat - Temp 105 degrees Fahrenheit - Heart rate 178 beats/minute - Red rash moving from thighs to face to abdomen to arms - Blood pressure fallen to 84/56 - Conjunctivitis in both eyes - Pelvic examination revealed brownish discharge - Despite treatment her condition worsened and she died of multiogran failure low blood pressure, hepatitis, renal insufficiency, internal blood clots CAUSE OF DEATH: - Vaginal sample contained bacterium called STAPHYLOCOCCUS ARUREUS| - This new disease was named TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME - TSS continued to rise among previously healthy young women - Symptoms were the same as Marys including confusion, fatigue, weakness, and thirst OUTBREAK OF DISEASE: - TSS is gender specific - From 1979 to 1996 it affected 5296 women at about 22 years - Peak death rate of 4% - TSS is not an STD CAUSE: - TSS is linked to use of certain types of tampons especially those containing cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose w/ polyester foam - This provided favorable environment for the toxin producing S.aureus - Elevated vaginal temperature and neutral pH were enhanced by the use of these superabsorbent tampons- Tampons obstruct the flow of menstrual blood and may cause reflux of blood and bacteria into the vagina Case 03 SARS - Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) - First began in February 2003 64 year old Chinese physicial travelled to hong kong for wedding and became ill SYMPTOMS: - Fever - Dry cought - Sore throat - Headache - Difficulty breathing - he didnt respong to medication and later died from respiratory failure SPREAD: - brother-in-law who only had contact with him for 10 hours suffered same conditions and died 3 weeks later - female nurse who treated patient 1 - man who stayed at same hotel on same floor - nurse that attended to brother in law - over next 4 months, more than 8000 cases and 800 deaths in 27 countries IN TODAYS DAY AND AGE... - diseases app
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