CHAPTER 16 – PLAGUES W/O GERMS –(Diet- deficiency diseases)
deficirncy diseases – called plagues w/o germs
The Red Plague
called pellagra – first described in spain in 1735 as “ Mal de la Rose” – unheard of today
first a skin rash on hands and feet and an ugly skin rash that stretched butterfly pattern
created stigma for those with the disease, similar to how lepers were treated
usually confused with other skin rashes but when the skin dries and peels away
it reveals shiny skin below – diagnosed as PELLAGRA
symptoms include flaing skin, loss of balance, staggering gait, and muttering,
weak and melancholic, tounge reddened, burning sensation in mouth, and
diarrhea, some went insane death.
*Clinical symptoms often refered to as 4d’s: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia,
Often afflicted the poor, disease was not only in Italy.
often indv who consumed mainly corn, salas: concluded that it was die tp a
parasite verdet in the corn
no microbe of vector could be found.
1900 – struck the American south (spring, worse in may-june, then declined).
first found in the insane jospitals of Alabama and then in farmers and mill
1909- declared disease of 26 states but low levels
in America fatality rate at 40% 1916, second leading cause of death in
no cause, no treatment, no development in injected animals
1930s – ½ mil deaths worldwide due to pallagra.
by 1950 Pellagra had been eradicated from the united states.
Searching For The Germ
Joseph Goldberger – primary detector of the cause of Pallagra.
could not find an infectious agent
www.notesolution.com he discovered that in the south the nurses slept in same beds as patient at the
insane asylums but not a single nurse had contracted pellagra even with direct
skin to skin contact
he speculated int had to do with the diet supplied to the people
he did an experiment where he supplements the food that the deprived children
in Georgia ate with more meat, had eggs, milk.
pallagra started to fade away no new cases reported
conducted similar exp with the prisoners at Mississippi prison farm
no one had pellagra in the beginning
received a Monotonous diet, 3M (meat(not red meat), meal (cornmeal) and
no veges, no milk,80 prinsoners in a control group to see if they developed it
with regular meal plan.
butterfly rash appeared on 5 of the experiment convicts in 6 months.
conducted research and found the lower the income, the greater the incidence
pallagra was tied to economics
despite indirect evidence of pellagra as a dietary-deficiency disease – a”hidden
hunger” – few accepted this notion.
1916, Goldberg did another xperiment to prove the skeptics wrong.
had “filth parties” - injected indv. With the blood of palegra patient, filled
capsules with the scrapings of the rash and feces and urine.
none became ilL, He concluded that his findings were greatly
Preventing and Curing Pellagra
prevented by adding fresh meat, milk, eggs, and vegetables to diet.
contain what he called the p-p –pellagra preventative- factor.
Discovered that rat and dogs would show symptoms – black tounge and
inflammation fo skin- if kept away from p-p factors. Only 60 days on this diet
resulted in pellagra. Yeast both prevented and cured pellaga.
IF IT WAS SPRINKLED DRIED ONTO FOOD, prevented it in the animals.
www.notesolution.com this discovered saved thousands of lives in 1927
conrad elvejham discovered that liver extract Nicotinic acid was the p-p factor.
Renamed nicotinic acid as Niacin (water soluble B vitamin) wads the specific
preventative of black tounge and pellagra. And goldbergs P-P factor.
great depression in us caused the disapprearance of pellagra since people
grew their won crops and their were Niacin enriched.
wondered why it was not caused in mexico aswell
but it was not in mexico because they soaked their corn meal in hot limewater
before making tortillas and released the bound niacin (therefore injested) and
niacin is a cofactor to conezymes NAD NADP and neder for oxidative metabolism
The White Rice Plague
1611gov general of Indonesia described disorder – paralysis of hands and feet.
native name beriberi
means weakness since they couldn’t do anything
japan also had the same called national disease of Japan.
Loss of strength, appetite, swollen ankles, legs, asphyxia, and convulsions.
the disease was alsocalled “kaka” since it had a charac. Ankle drop meaning leg
treated with acupuncture, schorching and blistering the skin to draw out the
toxic gases in body, and bloodletting.
* common belief tha