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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Prashanthan Nov/08/2012 Malaria Ch.7  Fever plague  Killed more than half of the ppl that have ever lived on this planet  300-500 million cases, with only 10% of them occurring outside of Africa A Look Back  Africa Europe via Nile Valley  Hippocrates discussed 2 kinds of malaria o One with recurrent fevers every 3 days (benign tertian) o One with recurrent fevers every 4 days (quartan)  Roman fever was a case of malaria  Believed to be the result of bad air emitted from marshes  Laveran viewed malaria patient’s blood under microscope o Noticed that mobile filaments emerged from clear spherical bodies in red blood cells (process called exflagellation)  Ross dissected numerous mosquitoes to find the cause of malaria o Dissected the wrong type of mosquito for many years, and eventually dissected the Anopheles o Discovered the route of parasite in birds, and presumed the route was similar in humans  Grassi later determined that the route was indeed similar in humans, supporting Ross’s theory The Disease Malaria  4 species of Plasmodium that affect humans o P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae  Female Anopheles mosquito bites victim, and injects sporozoites from her salivary gland  Sporozoites travel via bloodstream to liver, and enter the liver cells  Parasite multiplies w/i liver cells, and then invade erythrocytes  Merozoites release from erythrocytes and invade red blood cells  Multiply in red blood cells, rupture the blood cell to release into the bloodstream, and infect more red blood cells  Sometimes, instead of multiplying in red blood cells, merozoites differentiate into male or female gametocytes (crescents of Laveran)  When female mosquito ingests male gametocyte, it divides into 8 flagellated microgametes, and escape from red cell (exflagellation)
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