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HLTC02H3 (51)
Chapter 7&8

HLTC02 CHAPTER 7 & 8 NOTES.docx

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Department
Health Studies
Course
HLTC02H3
Professor
Joseph Bryant
Semester
Winter

Description
chapter 7: women’s Health and the politics of poverty and exclusion Women’s Poverty in Canada  The years 1973-1993 marked a great increase in income inequality in Canada. Income inequality attributed to a number of problems like a decline in labour unions, wage differences among certain groups, as a result of these issues there was an increase in the number of families living in poverty.  Most families living in poverty were usually single-parent homes, and women make up the larger percent of single-parent homes. As a result women and children seem to be the most at risk group when it comes to poverty.  Poverty and low-income is a gendered phenomena. Women experience poverty differently from men. Main causes of poverty among women in Canada  Labour market inequities , and domestic circumstances(violence against women, divorce)  Poverty and women’s Health  Health is powerfully affected by one’s social position.  The Gradient of Health is defined as the line on the graph that remains consistent across gender, age groups, and cultural groups.  So the people with the lowest SES will most likely have the highest mortality and morbidity rates.  Determinants of Health  Low income  Income inequality  Discrimination  Social Exclusion  Women tend to experience more illnesses and disability but men die more quickly than women. The standard explanations for why women report more ill health; are biological/genetic risks and social roles/behaviours. Wounds of Exclusion: Poverty, Women’s Health, and Social justice The author in this chapter conducted some cohort studies on the effects of exclusion among women in Canada.  Living in Material deprivation  For women being materially deprived is severely influenced by their access to health and certain essentials like food, clothing, housing and transportation.  Poverty imposes constraints on the material conditions of everyday living.  Limited access to fundamental building blocks of health such as health, nutrition, deprives people attaining a healthy life.  Access to Health  Although Canada has a universal medical system, some groups of people are still excluded from receiving certain medical treatments.  Certain healthcare services referred to as “health promoting extras” (physio-therapy, vitamins, non-generic medicines) seem to be accessible to only certain groups of people.  Studies showed that there is a two-tier health care system in place. People without money are treated worse than people who have money. As a result the quality of healthcare one receives is directly correlated with one’s SES.  Psychosocial Health Problems  When women are on welfare, society tends to look down on them. The stereotype of the welfare recipient is predicated upon the notion that recipients do not have a valid reason for being on welfare, they choose to rely on government. As a result many women face shame, subordination, disrespect and this in turn causes stress and anxiety.  Health Behaviours  Material deprivation and psychosocial health affects the range of health behaviours available to low-income women.  Most women on welfare have eating disorders due to the fact that they have low-self- esteem issues.  To relieve stress many women will smoke cigarettes, and this results in poor health conditions.  Even though many of the women living on social assistance would like to be healthier their income does not allow them to live a healthy lifestyle. Women’s Health as a Social Justice Issue  Health inequality researchers argue that the quality of social relations is a prime determinant of human welfare and quality of life.  Health as a social justice issue is concerned with creating the opportunities for attaining full health potential and reducing health inequities.  Equity refers to conditions largely out of individual’s control that create unjust differentials in health.  Protecting and restori
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