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Chapter 9&10

HLTC02 CHAPTER 9 & 10 NOTES.docx

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Health Studies
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Joseph Bryant

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Chapter 9: Cultures of Dis/ability: From Being Stigmatized to Doing Disability - “Health” is an evolving concept and cannot be easily measured and quantified - “Women’s health” maintains the hierarchical health/illness binary which disability scholars and activists find problematic o Under this binary, disability is understood as something that needs to be fixed or as lacking just like illness lacks health - Disability isn’t only an embodied and relational experience but also a socio-cultural and political event - Stigma contributes the emergence of disability studies and disability rights activism - Disability is seen as a category of identity and is best approached through an interdisciplinary methodology Stigma and Stigmatization - Social information: information a person directly conveys about him/herself - According to Goffman, stigma: the situation of a person who is disqualified from full social acceptance o He believes that stigma is not based on certain fixed qualities that remain the same across time and culture, but rather on historical categorizations of difference - Stigma is not a consequence of a fixed attribute – for ex, a face without a nose – but rather a consequence of social relations – for ex, the person without a nose in relation to others. - Stigma theories: ideologies that rationalize the practices of stigmatization – i.e., the person without a nose is that way because he/she is being punished for his/her sins - Goffman distinguished between ‘virtual social identity’ [normative expectations/assumptions made about a person’s identity by others] and ‘actual social identity’ [the actual attributes a person possesses] - Not all stigma is visible; for ex, homosexuality, a history of mental illness, criminal past, HIV/AIDS, deafness, learning and developmental disabilities, etc. - Stigmatized people are more conscious of their situations than are “normal” people Chapter 10: Negotiating Sexualities in Women’s Health care Overview  Health care providers often make assumptions, a situation that can place clients at risk  As clients, women face systemic barriers that construct lesbians and bisexual women as errors of classification within ‘juridico-medical discourses’  Communication between health care providers and their lesbian and bisexual clients is critical juncture where sexual identity, not just health care needs are therefore negotiated  Vulnerability is amplified when the experience of being a lesbian or bisexual is compound by multiple discrimination incurred as a result of other identities based on minority status  Sexual identity matters and has profound ramifications for a woman’s health care in a heterosexist and homophobic society  Contemporary health care experience of lesbian clients may be viewed in the historical context of how medical ideologies are constructed  These ideologies have pathologised lesbianism o Through moral condemnation o Through medicalisation of lesbianism as a diseases o Through specific targeting of lesbians  Lesbianism and bisexuality have faced stereotypes but transgendered health is a newly emerging filed that is also creating additional challenges – all individuals in these categories face extreme discrimination in the health care system o Some trans-persons may seek medical intervention for gender reassignment surgery which may involve physical, legal and psychological changes  Although this chapter focuses on research on lesbian and bisexual women, there is need to recognise the experiences of transgendered people – experiences of lesbian and bisexual women cannot be made to stand in for the diverse health care needs of the transgendered population  Assumptions of heterosexuality by health care providers acted as a barrier to care and the negative impact of disclosing one’s sexual orientation was singled out as particularly problematic  There is virtually no existing information on lesbian health or health care needs in the Canadian context  Lesbian/bisexual health and health care is really very new, about a decade old, and as such, there is no definitive body of research on lesbian or bisexual health  Homophobic attitudes of health care professionals, limited access to care, and expected of actual negative interactions with health care providers explain the neglect of LGBT pops. International Initiatives  The United Nations Commission of Human Rights (CHR) of 2005 recognises discrimination based on sexual orientation and ongoing efforts represent worldwide advocacy on behalf of LGBTI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, intersex) persons  In the USA, the strategic plan 2004 – 07 of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association (GLMA, 2004) advances an agenda for across-the-board health system competence around health issues of LGBT, with a special trans health care committee  International Gay and Lesbian Association (IGLA, 1999) focuses public a
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