Global burden of disease 2004 update Notes

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Facts from the global burden of disease 2004 update • Almost one in five of all deaths are of children aged under five years • In Africa, death takes the young; in high-income countries, death takes the old • Out of every 10 deaths, 6 are due to noncommunicable conditions; 3 to communicable, reproductive or nutritional conditions; and 1 to injuries • Group I – communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions Group II – noncommunicable diseases Group III – injuries • Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death (Top 3 leading causes) • Leading cause groups of death among males and females in the world are: cardiovascular diseases, infectious and parasitic diseases, and cancers • Leading causes of death (all ages)- ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower respiratory infections • Low-income countries- lower respiratory infections, ischaemic heart disease, diarrhoeal diseases • Middle-income countries- cerebrovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease, COPD • High-income countries- ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, trachea/bronchus/lung cancers • Top 3 causes of death among children under five: acute respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, prematurity and low birth weight • More than 7 out of 10 child deaths are in Africa and South-east Asia • Mortality is high among adult men in eastern Europe • HIV/AIDS is the main cause of adult mortality in Africa • Injuries and cardiovascular diseases are leading causes of death among men in Europe • Injuries are the main cause of death for adult men in Latin America and the Caribbean • Incidence- the number of new cases in a period of time- usually one year; measures how many people are affected by it for the first time over a period of time • Top 3 disease incidence- TB, HIV infection, Diarrhoeal disease • Diarrhoeal disease if the most common cause of illness • 11.4 million people were diagnosed with cancer in 2004 • More cancers occur in high-income countries than in low and middle-income countries due to the age of the populations in different regions, most cancers affect older adults • Cancer incidence top 3- lung cancer, stomach cancer, colon and rectum cancers • Prevalence- how many people have a disease at any given time; prevalence data do not capture the burden of disease experienced by individuals in terms of lost health. • Anaemia, hearing loss and migraine are the 3 most prevalent conditions • Disability refers to loss of health, where health is conceptualized in terms of functioning capacity in a set of health domains such as mobility, cognition, hearing and vision • Top 3 prevalent conditions- TB, HIV infection, Intestinal nematodes-high intensity infection • Almost 19million people were severely disabled in 2004 • Hearing loss, vision problems and mental disorders are the most common causes of disability • Much uncertainty around the disability estimates exists • YLD measures the equivalent years of health life lost through time spent in states of less than full health • Neuropsychiatric disorders cause one thirds of YLD • Depression is particularly common among women • One in f
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