Textbook Notes (363,236)
Canada (158,278)
HLTC22H3 (102)
Anna Walsh (49)
Chapter 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Anna Walsh

Chapter two Notes  · In the beginning of the 20th century there were many young people but by the end there are a lot of middle aged and old people  This will create problems for some government structures because they have to tackle this new problem of old age and also the fact people are from different backgrounds  · Aging is not entirely genetic, it can be influenced by the environment Population Aging in US · 1905 US had lots of young peeps · 1975 there was more people between 10-30 (baby boomers) and also some more people at the top as old people were living longer · There were fewer people in the ages of 35-45 who were born during the depression · Hence in the 2000 consensus, the growth of old people (12%) was less than that of the whole population (13.2%). But expected to change when the baby boomers reach 65 in 2011 · Hence by 2030, 70 million people will be 65+. The demographic profile will change from a pyramid shape to a rectangle, which is argued to be a positive point as it entails more prosperous and more politically stable than the classic pyramid shape. · In 1900 there were about 100,000 people 85+, but by year 2050 it estimated to reach 18.9 million · In 1980 about 14,000 centenarians but in 2000 there was 50, 454. 4 out of 5 were women. · A person born in 1879 had a 1/400 in becoming a centenarian, in 1980 that ratio climbed to 1/87 · Even despite the rising in elderly, the young and middle aged will still outnumber them. Hence the amount people of working will outweigh the dependant older people. · Total dependency ratio (TDR): compares the number of economically nonproductive citizen (under 18 over 65) with the number of working-aged adults. Note that this a rough estimate as there are many variability in working ageEquation: TDR: ( [18-] + [65+] / [18-65] )  The age ratio dependency is rough estimate of the number of people who need to be supoorted by worker  Equation: TDR= (a+c)/b o .a= children < 18 o b= adults 18 to 65 o c = adults 65 and older o · This equation does not translate into dollars spent · Life expectancy of a male is 74 and female about 79 if born in 1999 · Since 1930’s, primary cause of death shifted from away from infectious acute diseases to chronic disease · Decrease in infant and maternal mortality rates, improved sanitation, better nutrition, and improved medical care · The longest living person was Jeanne Calment who died in 1997 at the age of 122 · Chronic diseases are not curable and the main goal of treatment is management of the illness to decrease its rate of progression and therefore limit disability · Fries and Crapo (1981) proposed compression of morbidity: stated that people would remain healthy longer, until a few months before their maximum life span (about 85) and would then die after a relatively short period of disability · But others say that people survive long because they live longer with their disabilities · But still others say that people maintained periods of active life expectancy exceed disability · Healthy lifestyles can lead to a compression of morbidity allowing for longer longevity, while poor lifestyle choices can lead to longer periods of morbidity and smaller longevity · It is projected the average lifespan for women will be 90 by 2040 · Vaupel and other argue that life span reflects statistical forces rather simply genetic ones. Genetic views express that life expectancy will deviate a bit from 85. · California has the largest number of old people, 10% of all the people of US as of 2000. · Old people tend to be residential stable but move when they retire to places of cheaper cost and hotter climates. They also tend to move to places where they had vacationed before and maintain dual residences. Snow bird is a term that refers to leaving the north in the winter and leaving the south in the harsh summer. · When a partner dies or is ill, older people tend to move back to where they lived their younger days · 80% of older adults live independently in their homes, 15% live with outside assistance · Only 2% of population live on farms as suppose to 33% in 1920s · 23% of 65+ live in nonmetropolitan areas · Lifelong famers are well taken care of by family and are active as well. Hence they are healthy and in good standing · People who lived in cities retire to the rural areas. They have good health, money, and are happy. Yet as time passes and health problems arise, they move back to urban areas to be closer to family and medical facilities · Finally some older people are unable to leave their communities and become lifelong residents. This is possibly due to poor education, more health problems, and poor finical standing · Ethnic populations account for about 7% of rural older people, with Africans making up the greatest proportion. · Scheidt
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