Textbook Notes (363,328)
Canada (158,336)
HLTC22H3 (102)
Anna Walsh (49)
Chapter 7

Health and Aging reading notes chapter 7

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Anna Walsh

Health, Illness, and Optimal Aging Chapter 7 Sensory System -composed of 5 senses -sensory organs allow the nervous system to gain information about the external environment Age and Disease Related Changes Touch -skin is the sense organ -age related changes in the touch receptors (Meissners corpuscles) and pressure receptors (Pacinian corpuscles) -receptors decrease both in number and sensitivity Smell -10% decline -decreases in the both the number of sensory neurons in the nasal lining and in the olfactory pathways to the brain -decreases a persons appetite -inability to smell gas and when one has bad body odour -smoking decreases smell but if you quit can return Taste -taste buds can sense salt, sweet, sour, bitter, fat, and umami (glutamate) -smoking decreases this which can lead to anorexia Hearing -affect hearing and balance -vestibule allows humans to sense gravity and head rotation -earwax can decrease sensitivity to sound -decrease can lead to falling and dizziness -Presbycusis, hearing loss with age, is the most common problem -tinnitus, ringing of the ears Vision -cornea, lens, and vitreous humor all diminish in transparency, reducing the amount of light entering the eye and also scattering the light that does come in making the eye more sensitive to glare -difficulty focusing on an object -reduced ability for pupil to enlarge, vulnerable to glare and hard to see at night -lacrimal gland (tear gland) and conjunctiva produce less of their protective fluids which can result in inflammation and irritation -4 most common diseases of the eye in late life are: cataracts, macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy - cataracts: cloudiness or opacity of the lens -cataracts can be fixed with surgery -glaucoma leading cause of blindness in adults over the age of 50; increasing build up of aqueous humor in the eye, which results in an increase in intraocular pressure and damage to the retina and optic nerve -AMD (age related macular degeneration); 2 kinds dry (atrophic) and wet (exudative) -dry is more common but wet is responsible for severe vision loss Promoting Optimal Aging -avoid smoking -maintain good cardiovascular health -avoid UV light -good nutrition Nervous System Basic Anatomy and Physiology -primary regulator of the body -monitors and provides communication between all the systems and regulates homeostasis -permits voluntary movement and underlies all cognitive processes -CNS consists of the brain and the spinal cord -PNS (peripheral) consists of sensory and motor neurons -ANS (Autonomic) is responsible for all regulatory functions -ANS is subdivided into SNS (sympathetic) and Parasympathetic -brain stem controls heart beat and respiration www.notesolution.com
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