Chapter 2 Book Notes

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Health Studies
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Health, Illness, and Optimal Aging- Biological and Psychological Perspectives Chapter 2: Demography Of Aging - 20 century, most countries had pyramid shaped population profiles, with children and young people greatly outnumbering those who were older - By the centurys end, however, the pyramid shape had changed as the percentage of the population who were children decreased and the number of middle aged and older persons increased - Global trend of all nations the increased of older people - The increase in thr number of older citizens is creating problems for developing countries that do nto have adequate resources or the economic stability to support a large older adult population - In the United States, ethnic diversity in the older population is growing - Not only European Americans, this group now includes substantial numbers of Asian, Latino, and African Americans - The greater number, ethnic diversity, and increasing age of the population will complicate treatment and service delivery in the areas of health and social care, as well as affecting transportation, business, education, and even recreation. - This chapter examines the dynamics of the population growth in the United States, focusing particularly on the increase in numbers of older adults, with an overview of how life expectancy has changed in the past 100 years - How increasing numbers of older people may affect the economy of the country - Also report the geographic distribution of older people - Next, we look at population changes in other parts of the world - Morbidity and mortality rates of these countries and the difficulties of providing resources for their aging populations - Last part: addresses demographic factors as they relate to the rate of aging; how do gender, martial status, ethnicity and socioeconomic status affect the mortality andor morbidity of an individual - The worldwide demographic shift highlights the fact that aging is not strictly genetically determined but is plastic, or susceptible to influence. Nonetheless, the demographics of morbidity and mortality also demonstrate the opposing principle that aging process also exhibit cumulative effects, which can manifest either as aging acceleration or deceleration AGING IN THE WORLD Population Aging in the United States Changing demographic profiles - In 1905, children and young people made up the largest segment of the population with only a small percentage of people 65 years of age and older - Broad base of finants and children and less adults - By 1975, the demographic profile of the country had changed Health, Illness, and Optimal Aging- Biological and Psychological Perspectives o The largest cohort consisted of the baby boomers, who were then between the ages of 10 and 30 o There was also a slight widening at the top of the pyramid as more people in their 60s and 70s survived into their 80s and 90s o On the other hand, the indentation in the middle of the 1975 pyramid characterized those between the ages of 35 and 45, the result of the low birthrate during the Depression - For the first time in over a century, the growth rate of the older population in the 2000 census did not exceed that of the rest of the population o Although the total population increased by 13.2%, the population of older adults increased by just 12% o Furthermore, the proportion of those 65 and older in the total population dropped from 12.6% in 1990 to 12.4% in 2000. o This will change as the baby boomers begin to turn 65 in the year 2011. - Figure 2.1 o The bottom two thirds of the pyramid will have squared off considerably by that time o Many more survive into their 70s and 80s, although there will be relatively few who are 85 and oldr, compared with the rest of the population o By 2030, the baby boomers will have swelled the ranks of older people, becoming the grandparent boomers o It is projected that as many as 70 million people in the United States will be 65 or older by 2030 o Continue to shape to one that is rectangular: Atchley (2000) argues that countries with rectangular population distributions tend to be more prosperous and more politicially stable than those with the classic pyramid shape - 85+ in the United States o About 100, 000 people were over the age of 85 in the United States in 1900 o This age group represents 1.5% is the fastest growing segment of the older population o It increased by 38% in the 1900s, from 3.1 million in 1990 to 4.2 million in 2000 o This number is expected to quadruple in the first half of this century, nearing a projected 18.9 million by the year 2050 - Centenarians o It is estimated, that about 14000 centenarians lived in the United States in 1980 o This more than tripled in the past 20 years; the 2000 census reported 50 454 centenarians o Four out of five were women, reflecting the change in gender ratio with age o South Dakota had the highest proportion of centenarians in its population 1 of every 3056 people th o The chances of becoming a centenarian greatly improved during the 20 century o A person born in 1879 had a 1 in 400 chance of living to be 100 years old, but a person born in 1980 has a 1 in 87 chance of living to 100
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